Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Evaluation of Nigerian Paper Currency (Naira Notes) Circulating In Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Joy Nkeiruka Dike-Ndudim, Gladys A. Onyegbule, Seraphim Chinyere Ifegbuike, Chizaram Winners Ndubueze, Victor Udochukwu Enwere, Collins Chukwuebuka Duru

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i1030262

Generally, the contamination of currencies with various microbial species is increasingly being reported. This usually results from improper handling during exchange of goods, services and certain environmental factors. This study on the bacteriological evaluation of the Nigerian paper currency (Naira notes) circulating in Owerri, Imo State was carried out with the aim of evaluating the prevalence of bacteria contaminants of Nigerian currency notes in circulation. A total of One hundred and twenty (120) Naira notes of ₦5, ₦10, ₦20, ₦50, ₦100, ₦200, ₦500 and ₦1000 denominations were collected in separate polythene bags from traders, students, hawkers, meat sellers, food vendors, taxi drivers, keke drivers and banks for the study. The notes were chosen on the basis of denominations and physical appearance (Mint, Neat, dirty, very dirty and mutilated). Each of the notes was inserted into a sterile bottle containing 10mls of distilled water and allowed to stand for twenty minutes. Double dilution of the solution was inoculated into Nutrient agar, MacConkey agar, Mannitol Salt agar and Salmonella and Shigella agar for viable counts. Further identification of the bacteria was carried out using standard morphological and biochemical tests. The data from this study were subjected to statistical analysis using percentage, charts and anova. The result from the analysis showed that, 82 (68.33%) out of the 120 samples evaluated were contaminated. The study showed that dirty naira notes are potential routes for bacteriological disease transmission to man during handling and constitutes a public health risk. Therefore, the appropriate authorities should embark on public enlightenment campaign targeted at the handlers and associated risks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Vegetative and Generative Characters of Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae) Populations

Samira Huseinović, Sanida Bektić, Kovačević Mirsada, Salkić Besim

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i1030263

Rose family (Rosaceae) is one of  richest and most geographically widespread species of plant families. This family includes herbaceous and woody species, shrubs, and trees; the leaves are different, simple, or differently complex. The genus Fragaria (strawberry) includes perennial herbaceous plants. It is characteristic of this genus that the species are intensively vegetatively propagated using overhead stolons. The flowers are with a five-membered perianth and a developed outer cup. The flower has a larger number of anthers and carpels. A sample was taken at each site at least 30 individuals from the population in the flowering and fruiting phenophase. Morphological variability was assessed based on 5 populations and 150 individuals. This paper aims to determine the most variable and most consistent morphological characters that can serve in full and critical taxonomic analysis and revision of this variable taxon as well as related taxa from the family Rosaceae. Determine the forms and levels of individual, population, and interpopulation variability of the species Fragaria vesca L. depending on the environmental factors under which develop. Conducted comparative morphological analyzes have shown that the species Fragaria vesca L. shows a high degree of variability for all analyzed characters. Vegetative plant characters have a far greater share in overall variability compared to generative ones character. Pold does not belong to the group of those plant parts that vary the most.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antidiabetic Potentials of Ficus capreifolia Extract in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Tetam, Jack Gbenenee, Wegwu, Matthew Owhonda, Ikewuchi, Catherine Chidinma

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 20-30
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i1030264

The study evaluated the antidiabetic potentials of Ficus Capreifolia extract in an alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The study used animal models (albino rats) and daily administration of the extract at various dosages. The study took place at the University of Port-Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria and its environs between June to November, 2020. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight) except group 1 which was negative control (NC). Diabetes was confirmed after 48 hours in all the rats with fasting blood glucose levels above 250 mg/dl. The experimental animals were grouped into 5 of 10 rats each. Group 1 was non-diabetic rats used as normal control, group 2 consisted of diabetic control rats that received no treatment. Group 3, 4 and 5,  rats were diabetic rats but treated with Co-mepiryl  (SD), FC500, and FC200 (ficus capreifolia at 500,200 mg/kg).  Blood  were collected after 14 days and 28 days of treatment for biochemical assay of fasting plasma glucose, renal, lipid profile and  hepatic parameters. The dose dependent treatment significantly lowered (P<0.05) fasting glucose level, atherogenic indices, lipid profile (except in the case of High density lipoprotein which was significantly increased, (P<0.05) and  hepatic biomarkers  when compared with the positive control. It showed their antidiabetic potential by reduction in elevated glucose level, amelioration of dyslipidaemia, reduction in  hepato-renal biomarkers and showed  protective effect against coronary heart disease. All these, supports the use of the extract for the management of diabetes mellitus in African traditional health care practices.