Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Effect of Cutting Length on Sprout and Growth of Pterocarpus santalinoides L’hérit. Ex Dc

C. Fredrick, B. A. Ekeke, G. E. Omokhua, A. Alex

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i930256

Aims: This study evaluated the effect of cutting lengths on sprouts and seedling growth of P. santalinoides.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management Nursery, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, between April 2019 and March 2020.

Methodology: Ten (10) cuttings per cutting length were planted in a polybag filled with forest topsoil. The treatments are; 13, 20, 25 and 33 cm cutting lengths. Five seedlings per treatment were randomly selected and dried for biomass. Emergence of sprouts, number of leaves and branches, survival rate, number of cuttings that sprouted, sprout length, root length and biomass were determined and subjected to analysis of variance.

Results: Sprouts emergence occurred earliest in 25 cm cuttings (7 days) and latest in 13 and 20 cm cuttings (12 days). There were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in leaf number at month 1, number of branches at months 1, 3, 5 and 9, cutting length at month 2 and root to shoot ratio and non-significant differences (P > 0.05) in leaf number at months 3,5,7,9 and 11, number of branches at months 7 and 11, number of sprouts, cutting length at month 12, root length, shoot biomass, root biomass and total fresh and dry weight. Twenty five (25) cm long cutting enhanced sprout parameters while 33 cm long cutting enhanced root parameters.

Conclusion: The result showed that 25 and 33 cm long cuttings are most suitable cutting lengths and are therefore recommended for growth of the species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Live Wild Bird Trade and Sellers’ Biosecurity Risks in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Assam Assam, Helen Abah, Paul A. Abdu, Augustine Ezealor

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 10-23
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i930257

Aims: The first highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak in Africa occurred in Kaduna State, Nigeria and despite possible introduction of H5N1 virus into Nigeria through wild birds; few studies have been undertaken on the risk of live wild bird trade and sellers” biosecurity practices on introduction, spread and maintenance of diseases in the country. This study assessed wild bird trade and sellers” biosecurity risk towards disease surveillance and control in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Live wild bird markets in Kaduna State, Nigeria between March, and May 2012.

Methodology: Live wildbird markets(LWBMs) biosecurity and sellers’ knowledge, attitudes and practices on HPAI was assessed using biosecurity checklist and structured questionnaire, respectively. Wild bird trade was studied through a market survey in LWBMs.

Results: All sellers were male and their main source of income was the wild bird trade. Some sellers (22.7%) would report sick birds only when attempted treatment fails. Sellers kept poultry at home (78.9%) with 100% allowing poultry–wild birds contact. Over 31.6% sellers do not wash hands with soap after handling birds. About 86.4% sellers heard of AI with 84.2% hearing from radio. No sellers knew any HPAI clinical sign though 21.1% knew HPAI affects human beings and none believes HPAI affects human beings. Sellers would report HPAI outbreak to reduce losses (38.9%). None of the LWBMs was fenced with birds tied and allowed to move in 25% of LWBMs. Cages were wood/metal while fenced pens constructed from wood/wire mesh with un-cemented floor. No LWBM sourced birds from one reliable source neither were birds separated by species. In 50% of LWBMs, cages were stacked without paper or other materials lined within cages. No LWBM either stored feed in rodent proof containers or had a rodent control program. Other livestock were sold in 75% of LWBMs. Free flying birds interact with wild birds in 75% of LWBMs while free range poultry – wild bird interaction occurred in 25% of LWBMs. No seller wore protective clothing in any LWBM. All markets practice regular cleaning of cages and pens though none disinfects cages regularly. All LWBMs dispose dead birds properly by burning or burying though 25% dispose wild bird manure improperly. Over 75.9% of biosecurity features in LWBMs were risky with 76.2% being risky biosecurity practices and 80% (17/21) due to poor LWBM infrastructures. Food (31.8%), traditional medicine (45.5%) and pets (77.3%) were reported wild birds uses. There was high demand for birds of prey during election years. White stork (11.42%) and geese (9.94%) were the main birds on sale. Threatened and rear wild bird species were being traded in the LWBMs. Over 45% of birds were sourced from 9 foreign countries with majority coming from Chad. Bird prices range was ₦300 ($1.9) to ₦125,000 ($781). Mammals and reptiles were also sold in LWBMs with prices from ₦500 ($3.1) to ₦ 1.2million ($7500). Wild birds on sale in the four LWBMs were valued at ₦6,575,300 ($41,100) comprising of 71.4% of total value of animals (₦9,207,300) on sale.

Conclusion: Sellers’ biosecurity practices was poor with high biosecurity risk due to low-risk perception. Biosecurity in LWBMs in Kaduna State was poor with high risk to introduction, spread and maintenance of HPAI. Wild bird trade in Kaduna State is linked to the global trade and could be a source for disease introduction into Nigeria. There is need for sellers to be trained on HPAI and other emerging infectious diseases and routine surveillance of EIDs in LWBMs. The wild bird trade should be legalized and regulated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidants from Callus Technology

Gali Adamu Ishaku, Ftepti Benson Jelani, Kyugah Jacob Tersur, Audu Sanusi Kiri

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 24-43
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i930258

Antioxidants are very important compounds that are very vital in human health and they have been proven to reduce the risk of diseases such as cancer in human health. Many researchers have used callus to produce antioxidant and most of them used different techniques to get reasonable amounts of antioxidants. The technique used determines the number of antioxidants that will be produced from any explants. Callus Technology involves the techniques of producing callus and metabolites in the presence of explants using different plant hormonal combination in media, different environmental culture condition (light, relative humidity and tempreture), use of elicitors and under a sterile conditions. Callus technology is very promising due to its ability to produce a larger quantity of metabolites (antioxidants) compare to the raw extract of its explants. The use of callus to produce antioxidants is very important and very useful in discovering new plants as a source of antioxidants. The use of callus technology was reviewed for production of antioxidant from the callus of the following plants: Sericostoma pauciflorum, Helicteres angustifolia L, Lepidium sativum L, Randia echinocarpa, Andrographis paniculata Nees, Citrullus colocynthis, Rauwolfia vomitoria Afzel, Decalepis hamiltonii, Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) and Isodon rugosus (Wall. Ex Benth). Callus technology can be utilized to produce antioxidants and other metabolites in industrial quantity. Most of the metabolites from plants have been found to have medicinal values or useful to mankind and antioxidant is one of them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition, Essential Heavy Metal Concentrations and Nutrient Density of the Mycelium and Fruiting Bodies of Organically Cultivated Pleurotus ostreatus

Samuel C. Onuoha, Prince N. Okoroh, Ruth A. Tom-Quinn

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i930260

Proximate composition, essential heavy metal concentration of fruiting bodies (POFB) and mycelium (POMY) of Pleurotus ostreatus were conducted using standard methods. Moisture content was higher (9.79%) in POFB than in POMY (8.76%) on dry weight basis. Ash was higher in POFB(6.25%) than in POMY(3.25%).POFB presented higher crude protein value (24.66%) than POMY (21.17%). Crude fat values were low in both samples(POFB:0.28%; POMY:0.46) respectively. Fiber was higher in the mycelium (14.72%) than in the fruiting bodies (12.90%). The carbohydrate content of the mycelium was 51.93% while the value of carbohydrate in the fruiting bodies was 46.10%. POFB indicated energy value of 285.60Kcal/100g and the value in POMY was 296.57Kcal/100g. Iron, copper, manganese and chromium presented higher values in POFB than in POMY but zinc indicated higher level in POMY than in POFB.  The %DV highlighted in the study showed that the fruiting bodies and mycelium of organically cultivated P. ostreatus are rich in protein, fiber, carbohydrate, copper and iron. The nutrient density (ND) results revealed that POFB and POMY samples are nutritionally dense in fiber, copper and iron based on the World Health Food Rating System.  The results showed that POFB and POMY obtained by organic cultivation possess high nutritional profile, suggesting that people may use them in food and medicinal formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Contamination and Human Health Risk Asssessment Via Consumption of Medicinal Plants from Amassoma Community, Bayelsa State of Nigeria

Ebimobowei Assayomo, Solomon Brepi Patrick, Ruth Angobrakumor Ajimmy, Eyidenghabofa David Odikeme, Ahiakwo Bright Ogbo

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 53-65
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i930261

Aims: Man-made activities such as excessive oil exploration, automobile emissions, gas flaring and agricultural activities tend to elevate the concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding. Heavy metals have the tendency to accumulate in plant roots, which may result to heavy metal contamination.

Objectives: This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of heavy metals such as Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel and Zinc (Zn) in Pawpaw fruits, seeds, leaf and Scent leaf from Amosoma community in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The concentrations of these metals were used to assess the human health risk melted to the consumers of the vegetables and fruits.

Materials and Methods: Sixteen different vegetables and fruit samples comprising of Pawpaw and Scent leaves were digested and analyzed for heavy metals using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (F-AAS).

Results: The result of the present study reviewed that Pb, Cd, Ni, and Zn ranged from 1.090 ± 0.01 - 5.990 ± 0.06; 0.213 ± 0.03 - 1.317 ± 0.02; 2.810 ± 0.04 - 4.767 ± 0.09; and 0.793 ± 0.01 -5.303 ± 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Ni in some of the analyzed pawpaw and scent leaf samples exceeded the permissible limit as recommended by WHO/FAO, EC/CODEX and NAFDAC respectively. The concentrations of Zn were below the permissible limit as recommended by WHO/FAO. The Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of Pb and Cd exceeded the oral reference dose (RfDo) however; Ni and Zn fall within the oral RfDo. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Hazard Index (HI) values of Pb, Cd, Ni and Zn were less than 1. The Carcinogenic Risk (CR) of Cd and Ni exceeded the range of permissible predicted lifetime risks for carcinogens as recommended by US EPA, meanwhile, the carcinogenic risk of Pb was within the permissible predicted lifetime risks as recommended by USEPA.

Conclusion: The result from the present study indicate that the fruits and leaves from pawpaw and scent leaf may be contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Ni and the exposed population may be at risk of developing cancer due to carcinogenic ingestion of Cd and Ni over time.