Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteria and Parasites Pathogens Associated with the Houseflies (Musca domestica) in Lafia Metropolis of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

A. I. Alaku, Sani Danladi, Audu Mohammed

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i830251

Houseflies (Musa domestica) are common insects of the families muscidae, order Dipthera. They are synanthropic insects that are widely distributed worldwide. They enter several places, including contaminated premises due to their own biological habit of feeding. This study identifies the pathogenic parasites and bacteria associated with the houseflies in Lafia, Nigeria. A total of 215 flies were collected from 5 locations (New market, Neigbourhood market, Kasuwan Turmatur, Kasuwan Karo and Yanlemu market) within the Lafia metropolis, from September, 2019 to March 2020. The fly specimens were analyzed for the presence of pathogenic parasites and bacteria using standard laboratory procedures. The results showed that the parasites: Entamoeba hietolytic was most prevalence with (22.11%) Ascaris lumbricoides being (15.05%), Taenia species (14.70%) schistosoma mansoni (14.70%), Hookworm and Trichnris trichura recorded least prevalence accounting for (1.12%) respectively, pathogenic bacteria isolated and identify from the houseflies are; Staplyloccus sp (36.36%), Bacillus species (19.48%), Klebsiella sp (19.75%), Escherichia sp (6.49%), Protens sp (7.41%), Salmonella sp (6.49%) and Moraxella sp (2.47%). The result showed significant variation (P<0.05) for both the parasites sp abundance and housefly abundance across the sampled location; however, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) associated with the frequency of occurrence of bacteria species. It can be concluded that Musca domestica in Lafia harbor parasites and bacteria on their external and internal parts. The housefly have mechanical potential to transmit pathogens to man. Measures most be taken to control the fly population to avoid both present and future outbreaks of diseases condition emanating from the flies activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Sulfanoquinoxaline-2,3-Dione Hydrazones Derivatives as a Selective Inhibitor for Acetylcholinesterase and Butyryl Cholinesterase

F. O. Taiwo, C. A. Obafemi, E. M. Obuotor, I. J. Olawuni

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 8-16
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i830252

Some Sulfanoquinoxaline-2,3-diones hydrazone derivatives (1-8) were synthesized from the reactions of 2,3-dioxoquinoxaline-6-sulfonohydrazine with seven substituted benzaldehydes and acetophenone. All the synthesized compounds were biologically evaluated against cholinesterase’s (acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase). Compounds 1-8 were found to be a good selective inhibitor for acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase. Among the series, compounds 3 (IC50 = 75 ± 10 µg/mL) and 5 (IC50 = 80 ± 10 µg/mL) were found to be the most active inhibitors against acetylcholinesterase, while compounds 6 (IC50 = 110 ± 10 µg/mL), 8 (IC50 = 130 ± 10 µg/mL) and 7 (IC50 = 150 ± 10 µg/mL), were found to be most active inhibitor against butyryl cholinesterase. The IC50 values for all the synthesized compounds were lower than standard, eserine (IC50 = 70 ± 20 µg/mL). Their considerable acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitory activities make them a good candidate for the development of selective acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synergistic Effect of Docetaxel Plus Saponin Fraction of Vitex doniana on Prostate Specific Antigen and p53 in Nitrsobis (2-oxopropyl) Amine-induced Prostate Toxicity

Ifeanacho Ezeteonu Abireh, Godson Emeka Anyanwu

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 17-22
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i830253

Aim: This study investigated the synergistic effect of docetaxel plus saponin fraction of Vitex doniana on prostate specific antigen and p53 in nitrsobis (2-oxopropyl) amine-induced prostate toxicity in Wistar rat.

Methodology: Twenty-four (24) male Wistar rats with elevated serum prostate specific antigen level were selected from a group of sixty (60) rats pretreated with subcutaneous Nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine 5 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The selected 24 male Wistar rats were then grouped into 6 groups of four (4) rats each. Group 1 was given 1ml normal saline daily from day 1-28. Groups 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 further received subcutaneous nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine 5 mg/kg daily from day 1-28. In addition, groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 were given weekly intravenous docetaxel 8 mg/kg on day 15 and 22. In addition to docetaxel, groups 4, 5, and 6 were further treated with oral saponin at 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 750 mg/kg, respectively, daily, from day 15-28. Immunoenzymometric assay method was used for analysis of blood sample for prostate specific antigen. The prostate tissues were subjected to immuno study using the ImmunoCruz Staining System (Lab Vision Corporation, Fremont, CA, USA). The quantitative evaluation of p53 was done by calculating the percentages of p53-immunostained nuclei (labeling index).

Results: Significant increase in prostate specific antigen and p53 expression were observed in group 2 (treated with Nitrsobis (2-oxopropyl) amine alone) when compared with group 1 (control). Dose dependent decrease in prostate specific antigen and p53 expression were observed in groups 4, 5, and 6, treated with docetaxel 8 mg/kg plus 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 750 mg/kg of saponin respectively.

Conclusion: Docetaxel plus Saponin fraction of Vitex doniana significantly reduced the serum prostate specific antigen concentration and p53 expression in a dose dependent manner, with the group treated with 750 mg/kg showing the highest decrease in the parameters tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematology of Birds and Microbial Analysis of Recycled Poultry Litter Treated with Graded Levels of Aluminium Sulphate (Alum)

A. A. Usman, T. S. Olugbemi, J. J. Omage, H. B. Usman

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i830254

The study was carried out at the poultry unit of the Department of Animal Science teaching and research farm, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria to determine the Chemical and Microbial Analysis of Poultry Litter Treated with Graded Levels of Aluminium sulphate (Alum). The alum used was obtained from the Sabon-garimarket in Zaria, Kaduna State. Aluminium sulphate (alum) was applied to the wood shavings by mixing it with alum thoroughly using hands covered with hand gloves. The rates of alum application was as follows: T1 control (normal poultry litter with no alum), T2 (5% alum by kg weight of poultry litter), T3 (10% alum by kg weight of poultry litter) and T4 (15% alum by kg weight of poultry litter). Five sets of litter samples were obtained fortnightly from each pen from different locations i.e. the four corners and centre from which the microbial load were measured. At the termination of the experiment (day 56), two birds from each pen having representative weights for the group (6 birds per Treatment) were selected and 1.5ml of blood was taken via the wing vein. Haematological parameters were analyzed by an auto haemo-analyser (BC2800 vet auto haemo analyser) at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. This result shows significant (P<0.05) difference among all the parameters analysed except MCHC. The result shows a significant decrease in the total bacteria, E. coliand Salmonella spp. in the alum treated litter groups (5%, 10% and 15% alum treated litter) compared to the control group (0% alum treated litter), the mould and yeast load was significantly increased in alum treated litter groups (5%, 10% and 15% alum treated litter) compared to the control group (0% alum treated litter).The study conclude that treating recycled poultry litter with alum can reduce microbial load of the litter. Birds reared on recycled poultry litter have significantly higher haemoglobin and PCV compared to the control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Heavy Metals in Breast Milk of Breast Feeding Mothers in Urban and Sub-Urban Subjects in Rivers State

Diorgu Faith, Kalaotaji Glory Biambo, Jonathan Nyebuchi, Chikadibia Fyneface Amadi, Felix Eedee Konne

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 31-36
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i830255

Breast milk is one fluid that could contain heavy metals and this can be dangerous to the health of breastfeeding baby. The increase in urbanization and industrialization often comes with the increased level of heavy metals in the environment especially in developing countries where environmental protection is poorly managed. The study aimed to compare the heavy metal composition in breast milk in postpartum women in urban and sub-urban areas in Rivers State. The study was conducted among 59 postpartum subjects between 0 and 10days of child delivery in each group. Sampling was done through a simple randomized system. Human breast milk was collected using a manual breast pump. Heavy metals; Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg) and Mercury (Hg) were assayed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer with their corresponding cathode lambs. Results revealed that the mean differences of the heavy metals assayed between both groups were not significant (p>0.05). This work has shown that heavy metal composition in the breast milk of postpartum women may not vary based on urban and sub-urban settlements.