Open Access Original Research Article

Prevention and Control of Infections

Robin Sebastian, . Gopalakrishnan, P. Sanil Kumar, Lal Prashanth, Darly Jose

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i730246

Over the last 10 years several new viral pathogens have appeared in human populations in India. We have also seen the emergence of infectious diseases like COVID-19. It is time to reassess our current practice patterns and commit to a ‘NEW STANDARD’ for infection prevention and control.

A two-tiered approach to precautions is used to interrupt the mode of transmission of infectious agents. Standard precautions to work practices that are applied to all patients receiving care in health facilities and Transmission-based precautions are precautions required to be taken based on the route of transmission of organisms like contact precautions, airborne precautions, etc.   If successfully implemented, standard and transmission-based precautions prevent any infection from being transmitted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Birds Fed Graded Levels of Kapok (Bombax costatum)

H. B. Usman, K. M. Aljameel, B. M. Musa, I. Bata, S. Ibrahim

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i730247

The study was conducted in poultry production unit of the Teaching and Research farm in the Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University to investigate the effect of graded levels of kapok seed meal on broiler bird’s performance. A total of 288 broiler chickens were being used. The broiler chickens randomly divided into four treatments groups (four experimental diets) T1 (control), T2 (0.5kg/100kg), T3 (1Kg/100kg) and T4 (1.5kg/100Kg). At the termination of the experiment (day 56), two birds from each pen (replicate) having representative weights for the group (6 birds per Treatment) were selected. The selected birds were bled, dressed and eviscerated. At starter phase the result shows no significant difference (P>0.05) between the treatments with regards to final body weight and average daily weight gain, birds in treatment 4 had higher (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the other treatments. The result shows significant difference (P<0.05) between the treatments across all the parameters measured except FCR. Birds fed treatment 4 record higher values (P<0.05) of all the parameters measured compared to treatment 1 at finisher phase. The result on carcass shows significant difference (P<0.05) in terms of liver, lung, spleen and crop. Birds in treatment 2 have lower (P<0.05) liver compared to the other treatments. Higher (P<0.05) crop weight are recorded for birds in treatment 1 compared to the other treatments. The study concludes that ingredients of kapok (Bombax costatum) in poultry diet significantly (p<0.05) improved performance of broiler birds at starter and finisher phase at rate of 0.5kg/100kg inclusion of fed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Growth Responses of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Progenies Raised Using Different Starter Diets

J. O. Ed-Idoko, S. G. Solomon, P. A. Annune, S. I. Ikap, B. T. Iber, D. Torsabo

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i730248

200 fry of carp obtained from induced breeding by stripping were fed three times daily ad libitum with Artemia (DT1), commercial starter diet (DT2), and dried egg yolk (DT3)for  8 weeks. Each  treatments were in triplicates in indoor hatchery. At the end of the experiment, the progenies mean weight gained (MWG) was highest in the treatments fed Artemia (3.490±0.015a) as compared to others with significant difference (P<0.05).Mean weight gained (MWG) was highest in the treatments fed Artemia. Percentage weight gain (%WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) had no significant differences (P<0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was highest (P<0.05) in treatment fed with smashed egg yolk. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) was highest (P<0.05) in the treatment fed with composed feed. Mortality rate was highest in treatment fed with Artemia, and percentage survival was highest (P<0.05) in treatment fed with composed feed. Percentage jumpers per treatment were highest in Artemia diet. In conclusion, it is imperative that Artemia feed (amidst other starter diets researched on) is most preferable for the optimum growth and development of common carp fry.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Structural and Functional Annotation of Tomato Chocolate spot Virus

Ftepti B. Jelani

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i730249

Aims: The study aims to predict in-silico the structural and functional annotation of Tomato Chocolate Spot Virus (TCSV) retrieved from Uniprotkb with the accession number C7EXM3.

Study design:  To use the In-silico approach for the structural and functional annotation of the Tomato Chocolate Spot Virus.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted at the Bioinformatics Unit, Chevron Biotechnology Centre, Modibbo Adama University Yola, Nigeria. Between August 2021 to September 2021.

Methodology: The sequence of the Tomato Chocolate Spot Virus was retrieved from Uniprotkb with accession number C7EXM3, Physicochemical characteristics were computed using the ProtParam tool. The sever SOPMA was used for secondary structure analysis (Helix, Sheets and Coils). The tool CELLO v2.5 was used to predict the subcellular localization of the protein. Four different Homology Modelling tools (trRosetta, Lomet, RaptorX and IntFOLD5) were used to predict the 3D structure of the protein, the quality of the predicted proteins was assessed used PROCHECK. Three tools (InterProScan, NCBI conserved domains and Phobius) were used to get the possible function(s) of the protein.

Results: ProtParam tool computed various Physical and Chemical properties such as Molecular weight (MW) 20396.96 Daltons, isoelectric point (pI) of 6.92. Instability Index 41.94, and Grand Average Hydropathy (GRAVY) -0.503. SOPMA was used for calculating the secondary structure parameters of the protein as Helices (Hh) 43.48%, Extended strands (Ee) 18.48%, Random coils (Cc) 38.04%. CELLO v2.5 was used for subcellular localization of the protein, it predicted that the protein can be both Nuclear and Cytoplasmic with the reliability of 1.653 and 1.504 respectively. Different Homology modelling tools were used to obtain the best 3D structure of the protein. Furthermore, PROCHECK was used to assess the quality of the models obtained. Model from trRosetta was found to be the best because of the quality of the Ramachandran Plot obtained from PROCHECK which has more than 90% of amino acid in the most favourable regions. NCBI-CDD and interproScan predicted that protein is a DNA double-strand break repair Rad50 ATPase, which is involved in the early steps of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Furthermore, the Phobius server predicted the protein to be non-cytoplasmic in its domain, which means they help target proteins to their final destinations.

Conclusion: The study has helped in obtaining the 3D structure of the protein Tomato Chocolate Spot Virus from different Modelling tools, as well as the possible function of the protein.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Bacterial Isolates with Probiotic Potential of Tiger Nut Drink, Ogi and Palm Wine

N. N. Odu, L. O. Amadi, E. O. Aguamah

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 36-48
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i730250

Probiotics are live microorganisms that are very beneficial to human health when consumed in a sufficient amount. Screening and fingerprinting of isolates with probiotic potentials from indigenous food products were evaluated. Fresh palm wine, Ogi and Tiger nut drinks were bought from retailers in Obio-Akpor and Port Harcourt Local Government Area, Rivers State. These samples on getting to the lab in sterile containers were analysed using standard microbiological techniques for the enumeration and isolation of bacterial isolates. Identification of isolates relied on the biochemical and genomic techniques using standard methods. The probiotics were screened based on their ability to tolerate ethanol, bile salt, low pH, high salt concentration, lactose utilization and the production of biogenic amine. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterial isolates (probiotics) was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion. Forty-two bacterial isolates which belonged to the genera: Lactobacillus sp, Pediococcus sp, Enterococcus sp and Streptococcus sp were identified. Genomic characterization of isolates showed that isolate NO2 has 83.4% pairwise identity with Bacillus firmus strain T1, Isolate NP2 has 86.5% pairwise identity with Bacillus cereus strain PKID1, NT8 has 80.3% pairwise identity with Bacillus cereus strain PV-G21. Results of screened probiotics showed that out of the forty-two bacterial isolates, only fifteen were non-spore producers and that they were tolerant to ethanol, low pH, NaCl and bile salt at all concentrations. Results of lactose utilization showed that only twelve out of the fifteen bacterial isolates utilized lactose. Results of biogenic amine production showed that only five out of fifteen bacterial isolates produced biogenic amine. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the screened bacterial isolates showed that they exhibited resistance to Pefloxacin, Gentamycin, Ampiclox, Amoxicillin, Rocephin, Ciprofloxacin; Streptomycin, Sceptrin and Erythromycin. They were highly resistant to Gentamycin and Zinnacef. Bacillus firmus strain T1, Bacillus cereus strain PKID1 and Bacillus cereus strain PV-G21 were identified as bacterial probiotics. Consumption of palm wine, Ogi and tiger nut drinks is highly recommended due to the availability of probiotics.