Open Access Original Research Article

Photooxidation of Heavy Crude Oil Spilled in Tropical Soil

Etefia Etini, L. O. Odokuma

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i630240

Photooxidation was an important weathering process for spilled oil at the on tropical soil following a heavy crude oil spill, leading to the rapid formation of polar or oxygenated hydrocarbons, little is known photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons in soils. This study described the effect of solar radiation on heavy crude oil contaminated tropical soil. Physicochemical parameter of heavy crude oil showed the following values; API was 21.9, which was within the range of heavy crude oil, the density of the heavy crude was 0.8952 g/cm3. We examined the effect of ultraviolet light on crude oil using gas chromatography method for day 0, 14, 28 and 42. The results show a remarkable reduction in the total petroleum hydrocarbon [4664.56 mg/l to 1548.85 mg/kg] and poly aromatic hydrocarbon content of heavy crude oil [37.44 mg/kg to 2.12 mg/kg] from day zero to day 42. The saturated compounds was resistant, but the aromatic compounds were particularly sensitive to photo oxidation. This study provides quantitative measures of oil degradation under relevant field conditions, and improves our understanding of the role of sunlight on the fate of spilled oil on natural soil biota.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Distribution and Isolation of Microbiota Associated with Spoilage of Tomatoes Sold in Selected Markets in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

J. O. K. Abioye, J. Y. Raymond, I. A. Olayemi

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 10-24
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i630241

Tomato (Lycopersicum spp) is widely consumed universally because of its high nutritive value, but suffers great post-harvest losses due to microbial attack. This work was carried out to investigate the causative agents of tomato spoilage and the spatial distribution of such causative agents in some selected major markets in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Sixty tomato fruits from each of the four selected markets (total of 240 fruits) were investigated for the microorganisms responsible for tomato fruit spoilage. Eleven microorganisms, comprising of five bacterial species and six fungal species were isolated from the spoilt tomatoes. The bacterial isolates included Micrococcus varians, Lactobacillus fermenti, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp and Klebsiella sp. The isolated fungi included Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium oxysporium, Aspergillus flavus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor mucedo, and Candida tropicalis. They were all positive for the pathogenicity test. The isolated organisms were heterogeneously distributed with remarkable levels of severity across the study area. The bacterial load ranged between 2.09 X 109 and 2.56 X 109, while the fungal load ranged between 2.72 X109 and 3.97 X 10 9. The occurrence and magnitude of the spoilage, and hence economic loss due to microbial attack could be attributable to the biologic, ecologic and environmental factors of the study area. Recommendations were, therefore, made for improved personal and environmental hygiene, good agricultural practice and proper treatment of tomato fruits before consumption to avert the imminent health consequences due to the spoilage microorganisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects of Methanolic Extract and Fractions of Mirabilis jalapa (L.) Leaf

Sekinat Okikiola Azeez, Aanuoluwapo Nifemi Olowu, Anyim Godwin, Joseph Tosin Apata, Bolajoko Ayinke Akinpelu

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 25-35
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i630242

This study examined the potential cytotoxicity of Mirabilis jalapa L. methanolic crude leaf extract and its fractions against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina L.) and Allium cepa L. roots. The leaf extraction was done according to standard technique and crude extract was partitioned using n-hexane, water, ethyl acetate and butanol to obtain their respective fractions. Allium cepa root growth inhibition of M. jalapa methanolic crude extract and fractions were evaluated as well as brine shrimp lethality of the fractions based on standard methods. Also, phytochemical screening of the methanolic crude leaf extract was carried out according to standard methods. The result showed that M. jalapa methanolic crude leaf extract caused a significant reduction in cell mitotic index (32.96%) compared with the control (52.13%). The butanol fraction produced the highest mitotic inhibitory activity on A. cepa cell division at 0.3 mg/ml. Moreover, the butanol fraction produced the highest percentage lethality (LC50 1.45 μg/ml) against brine shrimp nauplii. There was a strong correlation between brine shrimp lethality and mitotic cell inhibition with butanol fraction as the most potent in both models. The methanolic leaf crude extract tested positive for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tanins and triterpenes. The methanolic crude extract of M. jalapa leaf and its fractions exhibited effective cytotoxic effect on A. cepa and brine shrimps. Butanol fraction, with the most cytotoxic activity among the tested extracts, demonstrates a promising source for novel anticancer agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Sensory Analysis of Cocktails Based on Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), Pineapple Juice (Ananas comosus L. MERR) and Bissap Concentrate (Hibiscus sabdariffa)

Adama Coulibaly, Pierre Ezoua, Ysidor N’guessan Konan, Souleymane Doukoure, Daouda Sidibe, Godi Henri Marius Biego

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 36-47
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i630243

Aims: The aim of this study is to formulate cocktails based on ginger oleoresin, pineapple juice and bissap concentrate in order to contribute to the development of these agricultural products and improve the income of producers.

Study Design: The biological material consists of pineapple juice, ginger oleoresin and bissap concentrate. The oleoresin and the bissap concentrate were supplied respectively by Gazignaire (France) and the Water Chemistry and Natural Substances Laboratory.

Place and Duration of Study: The cocktails were formulated and then subjected to sensory analyzes, from July to October 2018, at the Biochemistry and Food Sciences laboratory at Félix Houphouët-Boigny University.

Methodology: The cocktails were formulated through a composite central plan having as variables the proportions of the pineapple juice, the bissap concentrate and the ethanol composing the cocktail. Thus 15 cocktail formulations were developed, the sensory characteristics of which were estimated.

Results: Hedonic analysis of the formulations indicates acceptance of 12 of them by more than 50% of tasters.In addition, 5 formulations F4; F6; F12; F13 and F15 are preferred in proportions varying between 62% and 77%.The descriptive analysis of these 5 formulations indicates that only the pineapple flavor makes it possible to distinguish them and the F13 formulation is less provided with them.However, these formulations according to their flavor, aroma and texture are classified into 3 groups according to a principal component analysis.Which could offer consumers more choice.

Conclusion: Commercial production of these cocktails could improve the availability of ginger, bissap and pineapple year-round and help improve the income of producers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of some 3,6-Dimethlyquinoxaline-2-Hydrazone Derivatives

F. O. Taiwo, C. A. Obafemi, D. A. Akinpelu, T. O. Iyiola

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 48-61
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i630244

Aims: This aims of this study was to continue the effort to synthesis new quinoxaline-based heterocycles and study its antibacterial properties.

Objective: This study was designed to reacts 3,6-dimethylquinoxaline-2-hydrazine with some substituted aromatic ketones and study their antibacterial properties on some locally and clinically isolated bacterial strains.

Materials and Methods: Five 3,6-dimethylquinoxaline-2-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized from the reactions of 3,6-dimethylquinoxaline-2-hydrazine with various substituted aromatic ketones. The products were then tested for their potential antibacterial properties.

Results: All the synthesized compounds were found to be active against all the bacterial strains investigated in this study. It was observed that the zones of inhibition observed for the synthesized compounds against the test organisms ranged between 15 mm and 38 mm. The MIC observed for the synthesized compounds ranged between 0.0313mg/mL and 0.125 mg/mL, while that of the standard antibiotic, streptomycin, varied between 0.0313 mg/mL and 0.500 mg/mL and those observed for tetracycline falls between 0.0313 mg/mL and 0.500 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations exhibited by the synthesized compounds ranged between 0.0625 mg/mL and 0.250 mg/mL

Discussion and conclusion: The study concluded that all the compounds exhibited appreciable bactericidal effects against all the bacterial strains, which is an indication that such synthetic compounds possessed broad spectrum activities and such compounds could be useful in formulation of antibacterial compounds which could be used to mitigates infections caused by pathogens that are now developing resistance against the available antibiotics.