Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemistry of Surface Water Impacted by Crude Oil Spills in Bodo/Bonny Rivers, Nigeria

David N. Ogbonna, Sebastine A. Ngah, Patrick O. Youdeowei, Matthew E. Origbe

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i530234

The surface water resources of Bodo/Bonny communities in Rivers State suffers regular pollution of its ecosystem due to increase in crude oil exploration, refining and activities of other industrial establishments operating within the coastal areas of the Ogoniland of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.  This have resulted in the wide scale contamination of most of its creeks, swamps and rivers with hydrocarbons and dispersant products resulting in the alteration of the ecological integrity of fragile aquatic systems, bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants by zoobenthos, sediment enrichment, and smothering or asphyxiation of the organisms in water by oil coating, thereby causing death. These conditions have resulted in serious threat to public health and the ecosystems. The study was aimed at determining the physico-chemical characteristics of Bodo/Bonny coastal waters impacted by crude oil spills and their effect on the marine ecosystems. Surface water was collected from 5 stations (BBW1, BBW2, BBW3, BBW4 and LFPW5) with LFPW5 serving as control. Physico-chemical parameters were investigated following standard methods. The results of the physicochemical characteristics of the various sampling points in the dry season showed that pH, TDS and Electrical conductivity values showed statistically significant differences at   P < 0.005. pH was slightly acidic in all sampling locations except for the Link fish pond, the values ranged from 6.20–6.40 which was below DPR Limit of 6.5-8.5 for potable water, TDS recorded 43175–57075 mg/L above DPR permissible Limit of 5000mg/L. Electrical Conductivity (EC) values ranged from 54050 -57050 µS/cm. The Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Turbidity, Chloride recorded in this study varied significantly at P< 0.05. Results of the physicochemical parameters of surface water in the wet season fell within the standard limits except for the conductivity that was above the permissible limits. Comparatively the mean pH value of surface river water with Linked fish pond water which served as the control revealed that the Link fish pond water had the highest pH value of 7.9 than the surface river water samples with a pH of 6.4, TDS (60,200 mg/L), Electrical Conductivity (EC) (µS/cm3) followed a similar pattern with the mean EC value of 55,800 mg/L as against 750mg/L for the Link Fish pond water. Temperature recorded 310C as against 300C for the link fish pond while the Salinity (mg/L) of the surface river water was 31.63 mg/L. Dissolved Oxygen was  2.3 mg/L, Biochemical Oxygen Demand values for the surface river water was 0.49 mg/L while the Link fish pond water had 0.3mg/L. These values obtained in this study shows that the spilled oil in the water could impact on species abundance and biomass by depleting and depriving the fishes from available O2 for survival thus resulting in asphyxiation.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Microwave Exposure Effects on Surface Coating Properties of Linden (Tilia cordata) and Spruce (Picea abies) Woods

Halil Turgut Sahin, Gamze Ozcelik

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i530235

The quality performance of surface coatings are evaluated with emphasis on Microwave (Mw) irradiation, effects on both wood and oil modified alkyd-based varnish, separately. The surface pencil film hardness value of 2B (5 in metric) found for neat varnish coated linden and spruce control samples. It appears Mw exposure on both woods and varnish were effective for further increasing pencil hardness which are about 4 and 5 unit higher than controls. It is also noticeable that a clear improvement for cross-cut (adhesion) properties were realized with Mw treated varnish coated linden woods. Although cold liquid resistance of coating evaluations have conducted with 11 liquids, but coated surfaces were showed the lowest resistance, assessed grade 1 (considerably changes) for five of these liquids (juice, milk, ketchup, lemon juice, cola)  regardless of conditions or wood species. Therefore, results revealed some level correlation between Mw conditions and wood samples for six of the cold liquids involved in the examination. Mw treated spruce samples usually show 1 to 2 unit higher olive oil, vinegar, mayonnaise, ethyl alcohol resistance while no any improvement found for coffee and mineral water. Linden samples usually show 1 to 3 unit improving (higher) resistance against all these six cold liquids, regardless of Mw conditions. It is important to note that all Mw treated and varnish applied wood species subjected to olive oil, mayonnaise and ethyl alcohol show very high resistant properties (graded 4 and 5). Similar results are also realized with applying Mw irradiated vanish to both wood species. These variations and changes could be results of chemical structural changes, including cross-linking by esterification and etherification, promoted by Mw irradiation.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Investigation on Some Hepatic Enzymes and Haematological Variables among Alcoholic Volunteers in Kadima District of Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria

Yohanna Denkok, Samuel Y. Gazuwa, Ishaya Y. Longdet

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 30-40
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i530236

Aim: This research work investigated the impact of the differences in duration of alcoholic beverage consumption on hepatic and heamatological parameters.

Methods: Fifty (50) healthy male volunteer subjects were recruited for this study from Kadima district of Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria and were coded according to the years of alcohol consumption: 1-7, 8-14, 15-21, and 22-28 for groups B, C, D and E respectively with each having ten (10) volunteers. Group A was christened as the control having human subjects that have neither drank Burukutu nor factory- based lager beer. Full blood count was done using haematology analyser while spectrophometric method was used to assay for the activities of AST, ALT, ALP, GGT as well as various levels/concentrations of TB, DB, TP, urea and creatinine.

Results: Result obtained showed that AST and ALP were raised (p < 0.05) in all the groups when compared to the control. ALT was elevated in group E only while GGT was increased (p < 0.05) in groups D and E. Total and direct bilirubin were both elevated (p < 0.05) in groups B, C and E but equal control in group D. Total protein was higher in groups B and C but lowered in groups D and E relative control. Concentrations of urea was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in groups C and E. Creatinine was only statistically significant in group C but equal control in other groups. Results of the haematological parameters showed that RBC and WBC were reduced in all the groups’ relative control. Hb concentration was increased (p < 0.05) in groups C, D and E. PCV was found to be reduced in groups B, C and D when compared to the control.

Conclusion: This study has shown that prolong ingestion of local brew impacts negatively on hepatic biomarkers as well as some haematological indexes like WBC, RBC and PCV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity among Accessions of Indian Spinach (Basella spp. L.) Based on Agro-Morphological Traits

Olalekan Ibrahim Sobowale, Benjamin Oluwole Akinyele, Alexander Chukwunweike Odiyi, Emmanuel Oluwakayode Ajayi, Daniel Babasola Adewale, Oreoluwa Busola Ajayi

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 48-58
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i530238

Medicinal and nutritional qualities of Indian spinach obviously make it a promising crop for food security in Africa. It exhibits high genetic diversity in its present under-exploited state; therefore, accurate assessment of the existing genetic diversity will be fundamental to its improvement. This study investigated the genetic diversity among twenty (20) accessions of Indian spinach using morphological descriptors. The field experiments were carried out at the Vegetable Research Farm of National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria during rainy seasons of 2016 and 2017. The experimental design adopted was randomized complete block design with three replicates. Data were collected on the vegetative characters, yield and on yield related characters. The data were subjected to Analysis of Variance, Principal Component Analysis and Cluster analyses. The first three principal component (PC) axes observed for year 2016 and 2017 explained 64.66% and 59.99% respectively of the total variation. The clustering method evolved groups of accessions based on similarities of morphological traits. Yield and yield related characters were highly and positively correlated with one another. Stem weight was positively correlated with leaf weight and total plant weight. Likewise, positive correlation existed between leaf weight and total plant weight.

Open Access Review Article

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Specialist Hospital Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Godly Chessed, Kefas Hellamada Kwala, Aminu Innocent Asika, Sati Danjuma

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i530237

Infection due to Hepatitis B virus is a serious public health problem worldwide, in spite of productive vaccine. Pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus can transmit the infection to their fetuses and newborns. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Specialist Hospital Yola. A total of three hundred and thirteen (313) pregnant women were randomly selected for this study. Hepatitis B status was determined by the presence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. Sera from volunteers were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen. Seroprevalence was determined based on age group, educational level, occupation, marital status, religion and history of blood transfusion. The seroprevalence of HBsAg among consented antenatal attendees was 17(5.43%). The study found highest seroprevalence of HBsAg among the pregnant women in the age bracket 26-35 years 52.94%, 52.94% in women with primary school education, 41.18% among the unemployed, 94.12% among the married women, 70.59% among Muslim women, and 76.47% among women that had blood transfusion. The study also revealed that there is a significant relationship between HBsAg and (educational level, marital status) of the study participants (P < 0.05). The Seroprevalence of HBsAg among antenatal attendees at Specialist Hospital Yola, Nigeria, is on the high side. Therefore, early screening of pregnant women for hepatitis at antenatal clinic, would contribute greatly to the timely management of the disease and will prevent possible transmission to their neonates.