Open Access Short communication

Potentials of Microorganisms in Human Health

Ali Mohamed Elshafei

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i430229

There are large numbers of powerful species of microorganisms present within our bodies that make up the diverse human microbiomes. Microbiomes, the collective genomes of the microorganisms in a particular environment, support and maintain our health, but they are disturbed in some fashion in case of the presence of some diseases such as autoimmune diseases and cancer. Different food products provide different growth conditions for microorganisms. Microbial growth is also controlled by some factors such as pH, nutrients, moisture content, temperature, relative humidity, and gases. Thus the growth of microorganisms in optimum conditions results in spoilage and degradation of food products resulting in a sour or foul-smelling, in addition to a visible change in color, effervescences on the food surface, etc. Microbial contamination of food can occur at any point in the food production process starting from growth, harvesting, transport, storage, or final preparation. A variety of environmental factors can influence intestinal microbial imbalance, which has a close relationship with human health and disease. There are many numerous potential probiotics or beneficial bacteria that may prevent or treat certain diseases such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. On the other hand, a few destructive microorganisms play a major role in the development and progression of major human diseases such as infectious diseases, liver diseases, gastrointestinal cancers, metabolic diseases, respiratory diseases, mental or psychological diseases, and autoimmune diseases. With the increased understanding of the relationship between the human microbiome and a variety of diseases, the use of these findings to predict or diagnose diseases has attracted a great deal of attention. Thus, the aim of the present work was to review briefly the role of microorganisms in human health, during the development of autoimmune and tumor diseases. This review article also includes microbiota diversity, colonization, and normalization of perturbed intestinal microbial communities, the safety of gastrointestinal tract, and the beneficial role of probiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Noise Pollution Analysis of Reserved Areas: Case Study of the Isparta Ayazmana Promenade Area

Candan Kus Sahin, Busra Onay, Beyza Sava

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i430230

The sustainable landscpe design is a strategic framework in city planning and urban recreational areas, important for the quality of life of an increasingly urbanized society. This study deals with a better understanding of visitors demand and noise properties of Ayazmana promenade area, located in Isparta city center, Turkiye. The approach in the study is an exploration one with a base in site observations, interviews and survey. However, the average noise levels of the area was measured between 43.1 to 58.1 dB(A) in Autumn and 50.2 to 62.0 dB(A) in Spring, respectively. The recreational characteristics of Ayazmana promenade area were further evaluated with survey methodology on total of 100 respondents. Moreover, majority of participants (79) reported to be visiting of that promenade area for cheating with friends, followed by 78 for traveling, 70 for walking, 65 for sitting in green open spaces and for picnic, 57 for listening music and 53 for sporting activities, respectively. It is noticeable that most of the respondents (92%) were described the Ayazmana promenade area is somewhat noisy. At the end of survey study, it was requested to assessed the Ayazmana promenade area with some suggestions by respondents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mosquito Bed Net Preferences and Efficacy in the Prevention of Gestational Malaria in Yaounde, Cameroon

Judith Lum Ndamukong-Nyanga, Tchanga Chanceline Flore, Ngo Batandi Helen Virginie, Fegue Celestine

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 19-30
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i430231

Malaria prevention methods are diverse. Their availability sometimes does not guarantee effective usage and the use of each method in isolation may not provide the necessary results for the fight against malaria. Pregnant women are relatively more vulnerable and so it is recommended that they should be protected against malaria. Proper protection will require the use of long lasting insecticide treated mosquito bed nets as major malaria prevention method. This study was designed to find out malaria prevalence and factors influencing the use of mosquito bet nets among pregnant women of Biyem-Assi Health District. Information on the knowledge of malaria and use of malaria prevention methods, especially bed nets was collected from 302 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in health institutions within the Biyem-Assi Health District of Yaounde VI subdivision using a pretested questionnaire. Thick smear was prepared for screening Plasmodium parasites. Analysis was done using EPI INFO version 16 (Chicago IL USA) and test of Chi 2. The study revealed that malaria prevalence was 48.5%. The shape of mosquito net had a significant (P = 0.05) effect on its use and a reduction on prevalence of malaria. The use of mosquito bed net was 47.7% while some of the women (52.3%) did not use it. Profession significantly influenced (P ˂ 0.04) the use of mosquito bed nets. Some of the women did not use mosquito bed nets for different reasons such as heat, forgetfulness, neglect, dislike, etc. The shape and color influenced the use, but this was not significant. Use of mosquito bed nets as major malaria prevention methods is not considered as priority by pregnant women. Sensitization campaigns by government and NGOs should reduce malaria prevalence during pregnancy and give a priority position to mosquito bed nets. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Chronic Administration of Metronidazole on the Morphological and Biochemical Parameters on the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Wistar Rats

A. J. Ajibade, I .J. Ayanlade

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 31-43
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i430232

Metronidazole has been implicated in diverse neurologic syndromes such as; cerebellar syndrome, encephalopathy, seizures, optic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy and peripheral neuropathy.  Metronidazole is an antibiotic drug used to treat infections of the reproductive system, gastrointestinal tract, skin, heart, bone joint, lung, blood, nervous system and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This study therefore, investigated the effects of metronidazole on the cerebral cortex of adult wistar rats.

Thirty-two (32) adult wistar rats of average weight of 180g of both sexes were distributed into four groups of eight (8) animals per group. Group A was the control group while group B, C and D rats were treated with 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg of metronidazole respectively. Metronidazole was administered orally on daily basis to the animals for 28 days. The weights of the rats were taken weekly using a weighing scale. On the 28th day of the treatment, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The skulls were excised and the brains were harvested, weighed immediately using a sensitive weighing balance and then fixed in 10% formolcalcium for routine histological techniques and the other parts were processed for biochemical analysis of Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric Oxide (NO) and Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH).

The results showed that there was a significant increase in the body weights of wistar rats in A and B while the mean body weights of the wistar rats reduced significantly in group C and D. The brain weights in group B and C increased insignificantly while brain weight in group D increased significantly when compared with group A. The biochemical analysis showed significant increase (P<0.05) in the level of MDA, NO and SDH in group B, C and D as compared with group A. Histological study of the cerebral cortex revealed conspicuous degenerative changes in group B while group C and D showed increased degenerative cerebral cortical layers with peripheral and central degenerative changes.

The study concluded that metronidazole exhibited a neurodegenerative effect on the cerebral cortex of the wistar rats investigated. It is recommended that other studies should be carried out to corroborate these findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Thevetia peruviana (pers.) K. Schum on Growth of Phytophthora colocasiae Racib, Causal Agent of Taro Late Blight in Cameroon

Charles Essome Sale, Jules Patrice Ngoh Dooh, Alain Heu, William Kuate Tueguem, Dorothée Mvondo Nganti, Patrice Zemko Ngatsi, Godwill Chewachong, Zachee Ambang

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 44-54
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i430233

This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Thevetia peruviana seeds on the in vitro growth of Phytophthora colocasiae. A randomized sample block design containing four treatments (T-: absolute control, AE, ME and Callomil Plus at the dose of 12.5 μL/ml) with three repetitions was used. Plant extracts were used at three concentrations: C1: 12.5 µl/ml; C2: 25 µl/ml and C3: 50 µl/ml. The study took place in the University of Yaoundé 1, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Plant Biology, Laboratory of Phytopathology and Crop Protection, and in the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IARD) of Yaoundé, Laboratory of Phytopathology, during the year 2019-2020.

Aqueous and methanolic extracts of T. peruviana were prepared and used at the concentrations of 12.5, 25 and 50 μL/ml. P. colocasiae was isolated from infected taro leaf cultivars "Macumba/Ibo coco" located in three different regions in Cameroon: West, Littoral and Centre. The different leaf explants of taro were put in V8 agar medium and maintained in pure culture. Mycelial fragments of P. colocasiae of about 0.8 cm in diameter were cut and placed in sterile Petri dishes containing Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant extracts and incubated at 23±1°C for seven days for the evaluation of the radial growth. Methanolic and aqueous extracts have completely inhibited the growth of West and Littoral strains at 25 μL/mL while total inhibition of the pathogen was not obtained with strain of Centre region. The lowest inhibition was obtained with the strain of Centre region (85.1%) for aqueous extract and (70.95%) for methanolic extract compare to 100% for West and Littoral region at highest concentration. The aqueous extract at the concentration of 25 μL/ml totally inhibited the in vitro radial growth of some strains of P. colocasiae. This extract, active against P. colocasiae could be used as alternative to fungicides for the control of taro leaf blight. In other hand, the strain of Littoral region was most sensible to extracts than the others. This strain could be used to provide a genetic resource for future trials in natural conditions in greenhouse and in the field.