Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Study of Insect Diversity and Its Economic Importance in Agulu-Nanka Gully Sites

Ochiagha Chinemelum Stephanie, Okeke John Joseph, Ibe Emmanuel Chimela

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i330224

The study was designed to investigate the insect diversity and its economic importance in Agulu and Nanka gully sites using standard procedures. A total of 1,609 insects belonging to 15 species were identified from the study sites, which comprised of 1026 individuals belonging to 15 species from Agulu and 583 specimens belonging to 8 species from Nanka. The diversity of the insect species highlighted the dominance, diversity index, species richness and species evenness. Blattodea were the most dominant order in both Agulu site (43.27%), and Nanka site (56.60%). The order Blattodea was the most diverse (0.725) in Nanka site, whereas the order Coleoptera was the most diverse (0.740) in Agulu site. Results from the economic importance revealed 8 insect species as harmful, 3 species as beneficial, while 4 insect species were considered as both beneficial and harmful. Beneficial insects are edible and good agents of pollination while the harmful insects devour agricultural produce and stored food. The result of this study shows that gully erosion site is dominated by insect diversity, probably due to the flora regeneration.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Soursop on Glucose and Lipid Profile in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

P. E. Ejembi, J. I. Oche, J. O. Ejembi, L. S. Zaccheaus

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 13-19
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i330225

The blood glucose, total serum cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Triglyceride (TRIG) levels of all rats in each group were determined before induction, post-induction with alloxan and post treatment with various concentrations of extract and standard drug. The alloxan diabetic rats treated with gliberclamide and aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata showed average means of body weights as; (235.73±3.14a, 263.94±2.25a and 236.5±1.74a) respectively after 4 weeks of treatment. The Glucose level revealed; 168.43±5.06e, 65.29±4.57f and 57.86±3.93e respectively. Lipid profile raised significantly post exposure of diabetic rats to both standard drug and extract after 4 weeks of treatment. Therefore, A. muricata compared favorably with the standard drug in the context of diabetes management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Varietal effects on Productivity of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Kuru, Northern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria

S. T. Dayok, A. T. Gani, A. Ali

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 20-25
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i330226

A study on varietal effects on the productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was conducted during the 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons at the Research Farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Kuru, Jos in Plateau State, Nigeria. The study was aimed at assessing the effect of variety on productivity of potato. The treatments consisted of two varieties of potato (improved variety: Daimat, local variety). The experiment consisted of 4 that were laid out in a 2×2 split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Crop data collected were percent germination, plant height, leaf area, number of leaves, number of branches, number of stems, stem girth, number of tubers per plant, number of seed tubers per plant, number of ware tubers per plant, weight of seed tubers per plant, weight of ware tubers per plant and total yield of potato (tons/ha). Although there was no significant effect of variety on the growth parameters of potato but the improved variety performed better than the local variety.  The improved variety is here by recommended for adoption in the study area. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Toluene on Male Reproductive Parameters in Wistar Rats

Victoria C. Obinna, Gabriel O. Agu

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i330227

Aim: The study assessed the effect of oral exposure of toluene on male reproductive parameters.

Methodology: Twenty rats (190±10g bwt) were randomly assigned to four groups (n=5). Group A (Control) was treated with olive oil (0.5ml), Group B received 31.8mg/kg, Group C received 63.6mg/kg and Group D received 127.2mg/kg. All administrations were by oral gavage for 21 days. Thereafter, the rats were anaesthetized and samples were taken as follows: Blood was used for testosterone assay, caudal epididymides was taken to analyze for sperm count and sperm cell char­acteristics while testes was weighed and prepared for histomorphology.

Results: No significant difference in the relative testicular weights, epididymal sperm count, sperm viability, motility and morphology relative to control. Marked reduction (p = 0.001; group C & p = 0.018; group D) in testosterone level occurred in Groups C and D rats treated with 63.6mg/kg and 127.2mg/kg doses of toluene respectively. No anomaly in histoarchitecture of the testes in all the treated rats in comparison with control.

Conclusion: Exposure to toluene by oral route may be noxious to male reproductive functions due to the reduction in testosterone level at higher doses.

Open Access Review Article

Lipid Based Drug Delivery System: A Review

Abdul-Hamid Abubakar Zubair, Sadeeq Muhammad Sheshe, Muhammad Ribado Bashir, Sani Muhammad Sade

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 33-46
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i330228

Associated with the old/traditional of method of drug delivery are several limitation ranging from first-pass effect, low tolerance, minimal bioavailability, fluctuation of plasma drug concentration which result to less or no desired effect produced. This call for the demand for a more efficient drug administration technique. Lipid systems are biocompatible, inert and biodegradable, stable and deliver at the target with the desired effect. This paper attempt to describe several types of lipid particles used to deliver drug compounds and their applications as therapeutic agent in treating different clinical condition.