Open Access Original Research Article
The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is the most destructive pest of honey bee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), throughout the world. The present study was conducted to determine the quantitative and qualitative impairing effects of the arthropod venoms, viz., death stalker scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus (Hemprich & Ehrenberg) venom (SV), oriental Hornet (wasp) Vespa orientalis Linnaeus venom (WV) and Apitoxin of A. mellifera (AP) on the larval haemogram. For this purpose, the 3rd instar larvae were treated with LC50 of each of these venoms (3428.9, 2412.6, and 956.16 ppm, respectively). The haematological investigation was conducted in haemolymph of the 5th and 7th (last) instar larvae. The important results could be summarized as follows. Five basic types of the freely circulating haemocytes in the haemolymph of last instar (7th) larvae of G. mellonella had been identified: Prohemocytes (PRs), Plasmatocytes (PLs), Granulocytes (GRs), Spherulocytes (SPs) and Oenocytoids (OEs). All venoms unexceptionally prohibited the larvae to produce normal hemocyte population (count). No certain trend of disturbance in the differential hemocyte counts of circulating hemocytes in larvae of G. mellonella after treatment with the arthropod venoms. Increasing or decreasing population of the circulating hemocytes seemed to depend on the potency of the venom, hemocyte type and the larval instar. In PRs of last instar larvae, some cytopathological features had been observed after treatment with AP or WV, but SV failed to cause cytopathological features. With regard to PLs, some cytopathological features had been observed after treatment with AP while both SV and WV failed to cause cytopathological features in this hemocyte type. No venom exhibited cytopathological effects on GRs, SPs or OEs.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: To assess the effects of different selective complex growth media: Yeast Extract Peptone (YEP), Yeast Extract Mannitol (YEM), and Luria Bertani (LB) on growth and multiplication of three different strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Place and Duration of Study: Molecular Biology Laboratory, Genetics and Tree Improvement Division, Arid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, between July and December 2020.
Methodology: Three strains of Agrobacterium (EHA105, GV3101 and LBA4404) were inoculated to grow on three different complex nutrient media (YEP, YEM, LB) supplemented with respective antibiotics for a period of 30 hours. Optical Density (O.D) at 600 nm was measured at every 3-hour interval to analyze differential growth pattern.
Results: Though all the three nutrient media supported the growth of bacteria, YEP medium supported the fast growth of all strains of bacteria, LB medium was a little less efficient but comparable to YEP media. However, YEM medium proved the least supportive for bacterial growth among the three media types.
Conclusion: Agrobacterium is used for genetic transformation of plant species and crop improvement. knowledge of the growth pattern of bacteria is necessary for the effective infection of plant material. We have analyzed that three strains of Agrobacterium on three different complex media, among the three media YEP media was supporting fast growth. This study can help the researchers to gain knowledge of the growth pattern of Agrobacterium to be used in the genetic transformation of plant species accordingly.
Open Access Original Research Article
Activities around the port terminals such as cargo handling, and others has environmental implications both inside and outside the port area which may in turn pose severe risks to the environment and water resources resulting to adverse effect on the physicochemical and microbiological quality of the water body. Hence this study was aimed at determination of the effect of port activities on the physicochemical and microbiological quality of surface water at Warri and Onne Port terminals. Surface water samples were collected during wet and dried season between January to June from Onne and Warri port terminals, using sterile containers and transported in an ice packed container to Department of Microbiology laboratory of the Rivers State University for microbiological and physicochemical analyse using standard methods. Statistical analyses were carried out using ANOVA and All pairs tukey-kramer. Results of the Physicochemical Characteristics of the surface water of the dry season ranged as follows; pH (5.6±0.15 to 6.08±0.22),Temperature (27.6±4.278 to 30±1ºC), Electric conductivity (14168±1.90to 2138±27.871 µs/cm), Total dissolved solid (2622±1.70 to 974.2±9.09 mg/l ),Total suspended solid (7.6±0.54 to 111±21.284 mg/l), Dissolved oxygen (2.08±0.19 to 2.68±0.31 mg/l ), Biological oxygen demand (0.78±0.19 to 1.2±0.45 mg/l ), Chemical oxygen demand (1.56±0.38 to 2.4±0.90 mg/l),Turbidity (0.2±0 to 1.36±0.336 NTU),Bromine (0.3±0.01 to 0.6±0 mg/l), Chlorine (<0.001±0 to 0.3±0 mg/l),Nitrate (0.32±0.15 to 5.98±0.74 mg/l ), Sulphate (3.32±0.75 to 694±1.9 mg/l) Phosphate (0.634±0.42 to 2.316±0.44 mg/l ), similar trends were recorded during the wet season. There were significant differences ( P<0.05) between the wet and dry seasons. The mean values of the microbiological results ranged from 1.6±0.77 x 106 to 5.6±2.17 x 106 cfu/ml (Total heterotrophic bacterial count), 0.8 ±2.51 x 104 to 5.6±2.77 x 104 cfu/ml (Total heterotrophic Fungal count), 0.2 ±1.14 x 104 to 3.6 ±1.52 cfu/ml (Hydrocarbon utilizing Bacteria counts) 0.3 ±1.52 x 104 to 1.2 ±2.05cfu/ml (Hydrocarbon utilizing Fungal counts), 0.2±0.71x 104 to 0.6±0.89 x 104cfu/ml (Salmonella spp.). 0.4±0.55 x 104 cfu/ml (Shigella spp), 0.3 ±2.19 x 104 to 1.6±5.13 x 104 cfu/ml (Vibrio spp.) 1.6 ±14.7 x 104 to 2.1±6.39 x 104 cfu/ml Staphylococci spp), 3.9±0.81 x 104 to 4.6 ±1.79 x 104cfu/ml (total coliform), 1.8±0.44 x 104 to 2.7 ±1.03 x 104cfu/ml (feacal coliform). Higher counts were recorded during the wet season compared to dry season. In this study, nine bacteria isolates belonging to the genera and species:- E.coli, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Bacillus sp., Shigella, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, and Proteus, Six fungal isolates, namely, Penicillium sp Candida sp, Mucor sp, Aspergillus, Rhizopus spp, and Yeast were obtained. The results obtained in this study Port terminal houses several companies with beehive of activities which generate various industrial wastes which causes adverse environmental effects which consequently are major atmospheric and water pollution around port terminals. Therefore, proper waste management system should be maintained to avoid emergence of virulent pathogens.
Open Access Review Article
Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) is a perennial shrub present in Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mojave deserts it contains diverse metabolites; among them lignans are the most important, one of the most studied is nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), this shrub has been studied for more than seventy years due to its great variety uses. The bactericidal effect of creosote bush has been well documented, as the fungicide, nematicide, protozoa and viral effect. It has been used as an antioxidant to preserve meat in canned food. Recently research has been done on NDGA effects on anti-carcinogenic cells. There is scarce information about the use of creosote bush in livestock production. Some studies in sheep and broilers are available. The results of these research indicate that creosote bush could be used to improve productive variables in livestock and have an intestinal effect on bacteria.