Open Access Original Research Article

Acaricidal Activity of Commiphora merkeri Bark Exudate against Two Species of Rhipicephalus Koch (Acari; Ixodidae) by Larval and Adult Immersion Test

Ester Innocent, Ismail Almas Athman, Suzana Augustino

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i130214

Ticks pose a threat in the infestation of both wild and domestic animals, thereby causing an increase in chances for transmission of diseases. Despite of the wide use of Commiphora species in tick control, no acaricidal activity of Commiphora merkeri. Engl. Exudate have been scientifically assessed. The acaricidal activity of the exudate extract and its Petroleum ether (PE), Dichloromethane (DCM) and Ethyl acetate (ETOAC) fractions were carried out by using the larval immersion test (LIT) and adult immersion test (AIT), against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus averts. The crude extracts of C. merkeri showed 80% and 70% mortality on the LIT bioassay at concentration of 1.0 mg/mL for R. averts and R. appendiculatus, respectively. There was no statistical difference (p≥0.05) in activity of petroleum ether and dichloromethane fractions exhibiting 100% mortality at concentration of 1.0 mg/mL for R. appendiculatus and R. averts, also at 0.8 mg/mL to R. averts species. R. averts was more susceptible that R. appendiculatus showing stable incremental mortality in all concentration levels. In the AIT, no statistical significant difference (p≥0.05) in reduction was observed for crude extract of C. merkeri and petroleum ether fractions by having no surviving R. averts above 0.025 mg/mL after 24 and 72 h. The same trend was observed for R. appendiculatus within 24 h of exposure. However, at lower concentrations the residual effect of treatments on the ticks continued to elicit the effect over time having few or no immediate effect of death after exposure, This was vivid for R. averts within 24 and after 72 h. Follow up of survived engorged adults indicated that, the ticks could lay eggs but the eggs were not viable for hatching. This justifies its uses as an alternative agent in an integrated approach in reducing tick infestation among Pastoralist.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Activity of Dust Inhalation at Ratcon Quarry, Sokuro Village, Oluyole, Ibadan Oyo State

Adeniyi Abayomi Olusegun

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 9-15
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i130215

A total of twenty (20) experimental adult male rats, aged 60 days (7 to 8 weeks) with average body weight between 150-200 gm were grouped, restrained inside laboratory approved plastic holders and exposed to dust inhalation at the quarry site with exposure time of 7, 14 and 21 days to reflect short-term effects while 42days represent long-term effects of dust inhalation on human beings. Each specimen was collected and sacrificed at their grouped survival periods and subjected to laboratory analysis that include Hematology and Histopathology of the lungs. The Hematologyresults of the 7 and 14days specimens revealed no remarkable changes in the Erythrogram (PCV, HB and RBC), the Leucogram (WBC) and the Platelets but however, the results of the 21 and 42 days specimen revealed leukocytosis (increase in WBC), lymphocytosis (increase Lym) and neutrophilia (increase neutrophils) (p<0.05). The Histopathology results of the first specimen (7 days exposure) showed no observable lesion, the second specimen(14 days) showed capillary congestion and mild interstitial pneumonia, while the third (21 days) and fourth (42 days) samples showed the rats graduating from mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia and oedema. The risk of these diseases depends on the amount of organic or inorganic dusts inhaled and deposited in the alveolar region, the air concentration of respirable dust as well as the exposure time and breathing pattern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Antioxidant Markers and Histopathology of Wistar Rats Fed with Edible Clay (Nzu)

A. Dokubo, A. E. Okwudike, K. T. Nwauche

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 16-20
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i130216

The changes in the antioxidant markers and histopathology in both adult male and female wistar rats fed with Calabash Chalk (nzu) was investigated. Twenty (20) wistar rats weighing between (120-150 g) were used for this study. They were randomly divided into four (4) Groups containing five (5) animals each (n=5) A-D. Groups (B-D) were fed with 1.0%, 2.0% and 8.0% of clay. Group A, not fed with clay served as control. After 21 days of continuous feeding, the animals were sacrificed and their liver organs excised for the following antioxidant markers (Catalase CAT, Reduced Glutathione GSH, Superoxide dismutase, SOD) and histopathology. The results showed significant (p< 0.05) increase in catalase activity in rats fed with 1.0% and 8.0% clay compared to control (0 clay) and group fed with 2.0%. However, no significant (p>0.05) difference was obtained for the group fed with 2.0% when compared to control.  The results obtained for GSH and SOD also showed no significant (p>0.05) difference in the fed groups when compared to control. Histopathological changes indicated mild periportal and intraparenchymal inflammation in group fed with 8.0%. From the study it can be deduced that clay consumption has the potential to elicit the activities of antioxidant markers and subsequent depletion providing weak defenses against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and liver damage in the rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethno - Medicinal Studies of Finima Nature Park - A Protected Tropical Rain Forest

O. P. Choko, A. A. Aiyeloja, A. T. Oladele, J. N. Onwuteaka

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 21-37
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i130217

Objective: This study was aimed at conducting a pilot survey of the ethno-medicinal plants in Finima Nature Park (FNP), Bonny, Nigeria, to elicit common medicinal plants and their uses. 

Method: A set of structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from three key informants (Traditional Medicine Practitioners-TMPs) and 62 household heads on the local medicinal utilization of plants in FNP. Plant utilization and preferences, perceived conservation status and use values were documented.

Results: Eighty-three (83) plant species belonging to 45 Botanical families were frequently collected from FNP for local medicinal purposes. Rubiaceae was the most abundant (8%) plant family while the plant forms showed trees (46%), herbs (23%), shrubs (21%) and ferns (3%). Plant parts used for local medicine included leaves (44%), stem/barks (21%), roots (16%), whole plant (5%), fruits (5%), seeds (6%), tubers (2%) and flowers (1%). Infectious diseases were the most treated (30%), urogenital and endocrine diseases - such as thyroid (15%) and abdominal diseases (11%). Oral (62%) and dermal (30%) constitutes the main modes of administration. Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel. had the highest use value (3.5 - 4) while Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Vernonia amygdalina Delile and Alchornea cordifolia Schumach. & Thonn had the least (1). Perceived conservation status of medicinal plants by respondents revealed scarce (9%), threatened (31%) and abundance (60%).

Conclusion: Finima Nature Park (FNP) is a repository of medicinal genetic resource and as such, its conservation should be upheld.

Open Access Original Research Article

Concentrations of Trace Metals in Three Leafy Vegetables (Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranthus viridis and Pterocarpus erinaceus) during the Dry Season in Enugu, Nigeria

A. O. Onah, G. I. Ameh, C. D. Nwani, E. N. Anumudu, J. U. Anukwu

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i130218

Aims: To investigate the trace metals, manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in vegetable samples (Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranthus viridis and Pterocarpus erinaceus) from three senatorial zones in Enugu state, Nigeria during dry season period.

Place of Study: The leaf samples were collected from three senatorial zones (Enugu north, Enugu west and Enugu east) of Enugu State Nigeria.

Methodology: The samples were collected fresh in January, February and March. Prior to analysis, each of the collected samples were dried at room temperature, pulverized using a ball mill and stored at room temperature. They were digested using the wet digestion method and individual metals analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Results: The results of the findings revealed that the concentrations of trace metals in the plant tissues were in the following decreasing order Fe > Zn > Mn > Cr > Co > Cd. Amaranthus viridis had the highest accumulation of trace metals while P. erinaceus had the least. Enugu East senatorial zone had the highest accumulation of Mn and Co in all the vegetable samples while Enugu West senatorial zone showed the highest accumulation of Ni, Cr, Zn and Fe in all the plant tissues. Enugu north senatorial zone had the least level of trace metals accumulation in the three plant tissues. Manganese contamination could be a result of mining, battery and automobile fume pollution which dissolve into the soil and are absorbed by plants more effectively during dry seasons.

Conclusion: To mitigate the unwanted increase of these metals in vegetables during the dry season, it is necessary to strengthen environmental waste disposal laws.