Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Some Heavy Metals and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Surface Water of Matara-Uku Wetlands

Abbas Umar Haruna, Yahaya Abdullahi Muhammad, Zaharaddeen Muhammad, Misbahu Said Ahmad, Fatima Abdullahi Goje, Musbahu Ibrahim

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1130193

The study assessed the levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and some heavy metals in Matara-Uku wetland. Twenty water samples were collected from surface water of Matara-Uku using polyethene plastic container, the physicochemical parameters of the samples were measured and the samples were analyzed for Nitrogen, Phosphorous and heavy metals. Results from physicochemical analysis are obtained as; pH (7.6 – 8.0), total dissolve solid (70.82 - 84.26 mg/l), electric conductivity (105.0 – 163.0 μs/cm) and temperature (24.4 – 25.4ºC). All the results are in line with World Health Organization standard of 6.5 - 8.5, <600 mg/l, 400 μs/cm and ambient temperature respectively.  The Nitrogen and phosphorous were analyzed using UV- Visible spectrophotometer. From the results, it was found that all the samples had Nitrogen level below the World Health Organization maximum contaminant level of 10 mg/L with a mean concentration range (0.2293 ± 0.0057) mg/L to (2.2455 ± 0.0216) mg/L. Phosphorus was also analyzed and the results indicated that all the sampling sites had phosphorus level above the WHO maximum contaminant level of 0.03 mg/L with a mean concentration range (3.8208 ± 0.4109) mg/L to (4.56 ± 0.1325) mg/L. The water samples were digested using concentrated HCl and HNO3, in which the digested samples were used for heavy metals analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The mean concentrations of the heavy metals analyzed were between the ranges Pb (0.1272 ± 0.0445) mg/L to (0.2727 ± 0.1285) mg/L, Cd (0.0026 ± 0.0024) mg/L to (0.0053 ± 0.0054) mg/L and Ni (0.0705 ± 0.0235) mg/L to (0.1411 ± 0.0819) mg/L respectively. Concentrations of Cd and Ni are generally below the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L, whereas concentrations of Pb exceeded the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/L for surface water. It was concluded that the surface water of Matara-Uku is polluted with respect to Pb, which is known to bio-accumulate and even undergo bio-magnification in organisms such as fishes and even plants with serious health implications to human being.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Multidrug Resistant Patterns Associated with Intensive Care Unit Infections in Akum, Cameroon

Asakizi Augustine Nji, Forcham Emmanuel Duna

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 13-21
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1130194

Background: Patients admitted into the intensive care unit (ICU) usually have impaired immunity and are therefore at high risk of acquiring hospital associated infections. Infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria now constitute a major problem, limiting the choice of antimicrobial therapy.

Objectives: This study was aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistance pattern of pathogens causing ICU infections at the Catholic Holy Family Hospital Akum-Bamenda. The etiological agents, prevalence and types ICU infections were also determined.

Methods: Thirteen months hospital associated infections surveillance was conducted in the hospital for patients admitted into ICU. Blood, urine, tracheal aspirate and wound biopsies specimens were collected under strict asepsis and sent to the Medical Microbiology laboratory of the same institution for immediate processing. All pathogens were isolated and identified by standard microbiological methods. Disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.

Results: The overall prevalence of ICU infections was 30.9% out of which 12.9% were bloodstream infections, 31.5% urinary tract infections, 38.9% pneumonia, and 16.7% skin and soft tissue infections. Klebsiella species and Escherichia coli were the predominant pathogens. Multidrug resistant organisms constituted 59.3% of the pathogens, MDR Klebsiella spp and MDR E. coli were 70.8% and 71.4% respectively. Resistance to Cefuroxime was the highest (92.9%) while Meropenem had the least resistance (21.4%).

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of multidrug resistant bacteria causing ICU infections.  With the advent of covid-19, infection control procedures and institution of functional antimicrobial stewardship are needed to be put in place in order to cover come this herculean task.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Different Types of Organic Manure and Weeding Frequencies on Weed Parameters and Leafy Yield of Jute Mallow (Corchorus olitorious)

M. M. Olorukooba, R. Suleiman, O. Olukotun, R. Mohammed, E. Apene, J. Essien, C. A. Danbaki, S. O. Olafemi

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1130195

Field trials were carried out during 2018 and during 2019 dry season period at Federal College of Forestry and Mechanization Afaka Kaduna, located between latitude 10° 35”N and longitude 007° 21”E at altitude 644 m above sea level, to determine the influence of different types of organic manure and weeding frequencies on weed parameters and leafy yield of jute mallow (Corchorus olitorious). The experimental treatments consists of ten combinations of  poultry manure + weed free, cow dung + weed free, goat dropping + weed free, poultry manure + weeding at 2 WAT, cow dung + weeding at 2 WAT, goat dropping + weeding at 2 WAT, poultry manure + weeding at 4 WAT, cow dung + weeding at 4 WAT, goat dropping + weeding at 4 WAT and no organic manure application + no weeding which were laid out in a randomize complete block design (RCBD) and replicated 3 times. The weed parameters and yield component observed and measured were common weeds that infested the plots, weed dry weight, weed control index, weed competition index and cumulative leaf yield at 2, 4, 6 WAT and at harvest. The result revealed that the plots were highly infested with three major weed species namely Synedralla nodiflora Gaertn, Gomphrena celosiodes and Cyperus esculentus. Highest weed completion index was obtained from poultry manure + weeding at 2 WAT while the least weed competition index was observed with application of cow dung + weeding at 4 WAT and goat dropping + weeding at 4 WAT respectively. The result also revealed that application of poultry manure + weed free plots had the highest mean cumulative yield value of 236 kg per hectare, closely followed by plots with application of poultry manure + weeding at 4 WAS (223 kg) per hectare compared to the control treatment that plots that have no organic manure + no weeding that had the least mean cumulative yield value of 111 kg per hectare. The study concludes that the use of poultry manure plus weed free gave the best yield of jute mallow compared to other types of organic manure and the control. It is therefore recommended that farmers in the study area should adopt the use of poultry manure plus weed free treatment to obtain bumper harvest from cultivation of jute mallow (Corchorus olitorious).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Humic Acid Application Methods on Yield and Some Yield Characteristics of Corn Plant (Zea mays L. indentata)

Ayse Gulgun Oktem, Abdullah Oktem

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 31-37
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1130196

Aims: This study was aimed to determination of humic acid application methods on yield and some yield characteristics of corn plant (Zea mays L. indentata) as grown second crop conditions.

Study Design: Study was set up according to randomized complete blocks experimental design with 3 replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Research was conducted under Harran Plain conditions as second crop conditions in 2017, Sanliurfa, Turkey

Methodology: Capuzi hybrid corn variety was used as a plant material. Humic Acid (HA) applications  were 0 (control), to soil (4 L da-1 HA, before sowing), to seed (%2 HA), to foliar (%0.7 HA,  when the plants have 4, 8, 12 leaves),  to soil + seed (4 L da-1 HA before sowing + %2 HA  to seeds), to soil + foliar (4 L da-1 HA to soil  before sowing, %0.7 HA, when the plants have 4, 8, 12 leaves), to seed + foliar (%2 HA to seeds + %0.7 HA  when the plants have 4, 8, 12 leaves) and to soil, seed and foliar (4 L da-1 HA to soil  before sowing + %2 HA  to seeds + %0.7 HA  when the plants have 4, 8, 12 leaves).

Results: Humic acid treatments effected positively tassel flowering day, grain number per ear, grain yield, protein ratio, leaf surface temperature and chlorophyll content (SPAD) values (P≤0.05). The longest tassel flowering duration value was seen at control application whereas the shortest tassel flowering duration value was found at soil+foliar treatment. Grain number per ear value ranged from 602.8 to 655.9 numbers. The highest grain yield value obtained from seed+soil+foliar treatment of humic acid (1325.54 kg da-1) while the lowest value was seen at control parcel (1165 kg da-1). Protein ratio (%) values ranged from % 8.33-9.40. The highest protein ratio was obtained from Seed+Soil+Foliar treatment of humic acid while the lowest protein ratio value was found at control parcel. Leaf surface temperatures decreased with all humic acid applications. The highest chlorophyll content (SPAD) value was obtained from seed+ foliar treatment of humic acid whereas the lowest value was at control parcel.

Conclusion: The highest grain number per ear, grain yield, protein ratio values were found in soil+seed+foliar application of humic acid. And also, the highest chlorophyll content (SPAD) values were obtained from seed+foliar treatment of humic acid. Tassel flowering duration decreased with humic acid applications. The lowest leaf surface temperature value was found at soil +foliar application. All applications of humic acid affected positively on corn plant yield characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Lower-Body Training, Upper-Body Training and a Combination of Both on Pain, Functionality and Quality of Life in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

K. Baum, U. Hofmann, F. Bock

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 38-51
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1130197

Purpose: Regular physical activities are a keystone in the nonmedical and nonsurgical treatment of knee-osteoarthritis. However, the underlying mechanisms are still regarded as a black-box and a matter of debate. As potential candidates, two groups can be distinguished: First, joint-specific influences such as better biomechanical functioning and improvements in the quality of cartilage. Secondly, more unspecific effectors like anti-inflammatory cytokines and a central modulation of pain perception. In order to distinguish between these two groups the present study compared the training effects of knee-joint surrounding muscles (LBT), upper body muscles (UBT), and the combination of both (WBT).  

Methods: 372 physically inactive, adult knee-osteoarthritic patients of both sexes were enrolled in the multi-centered, controlled, and randomized training intervention. All three exercise groups fulfilled an 8-week circle-training intervention two times per week with a subjective intensity of 4 - 5 for the first five sessions (on a 0 = no effort to 10 = extreme effort scale). From the 6th to the 10th session, intensity was adjusted to 6 – 7 and thereafter to 7 – 8. The single training sessions were as follows. LBT: 4 devices, exercise net time (ENT) 20 min., UBT: 4 devices, ENT12 min., WBT 8 devices, ENT 28 min. Anthropometric data, comorbidities, regular physical activities, actual and former medical treatments, knee specific functionality, pain, stiffness, and health related physical and mental quality of life was evaluated at the beginning, after 4 weeks, and finally after 8 weeks by means of online-questionnaires.

Main Results: Initially, pain and physical function correlated well with the Kellgren-Lawrence grades (p < 0,01). All three training interventions led to significantly increased functionalities (p < 0,0001) and physical qualities of life (p < 0,02). The pain-subscore of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was significantly reduced (p < 0,004). None of these improvements showed significant differences between groups, although there was a tendency of WBT to be superior to UBT and LBT.

Conclusion: The positive effects of physical training regimens cannot be exclusively attributed to a knee-specific training effect since significant improvements also occurred in the UBT group.