Open Access Short Research Article

Preparation and Characterization of Dog Erythrocytic Membrane Antigen

G. Kalaiselvi, K. G. Tirumurugaan, G. Dinakar Raj, K. Vijayarani, R. Baranidharan, K. N. Usha Nandhini

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1030190

Dog erythrocytic membrane antigen plays a major role for determining blood group. Structural and molecular characterization of erythrocytic membrane antigen improves the production of blood typing antisera, to study the auto antibody production in canine autoimmune haemolyticanemia. The proteins in the lipid domain arranged from the inside of the erythrocyte to the outside. The integral membrane proteins include membrane protein 3 visible in coomassie Brilliant blue-stained polyacrylamide gels. The erythrocyte cytoskeleton consists of spectrin, ankyrin, actin, and protein 4.1 form a filamentous network under the lipid bilayer of erythroctic membrane. The cytoskeletal proteins interact with integral proteins and lipids of the bilayer forms network for maintaining membrane integrity. The external clustering of membrane protein 3 creates a recognition site for auto antibodies. The auto antibodies from the erythrocytes of dogs with acute immune haemolytic anemia have similar electrophoretic mobility to the human erythrocyte Rh related proteins and glycoproteins and able to immunoprecipitate membrane proteins that on SDS-PAGE and western blotting.  The DEA 1 blood group system consists of antigens 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 which are most significant in terms of transfusion reactions and alloantibodies produced against DEA 3, 5 and 7 are not much clinical significance. Blood samples collected from registered donor dogs and RBC membrane were isolated by hypotonic freeze thaw method. The ghost membrane and cytoplasmic marker were identified in western blot.

Open Access Original Research Article

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Kolanuts (Cola nitida Schott & Amp; Endl) Daily Intake Exposure Risk from Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa

Kouadio Kan Rodrigue, Biego Godi Henri, Nyamien Yves, Ake Assi, Konan Ysidor, Adama Coulibaly, Sidibe Daouda

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1030189

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pervasive environmental pollutants of high toxicity. Due to their lipophilic characteristics, they tend to accumulate in the food chain. Human exposure to PAHs seems inevitable and the main route of exposure is food. The presence of PAHs in kolanut could cause serious health problem for consumers and slow down the export to new markets, which would constitute a significant shortfall for all actors in the kola sector.This study aimed to detrmined the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in kolanuts and estimate the exposure risks of nuts consumption by Ivorian population. Samples were collected from farmers, rural collectors, urban stores in districts (Mountains, Comoe, Lagoons, Down-Sassandra) and big storage centers of Anyama and Bouake cities. Concentrations of 9 PAHs (B[a]P, B[b]F, B[a]A, CHR, FLA, B[k]F, D[ah]A, B[ghi]P and IcdP) were measured using an Adept brand High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) equipped with an ultraviolet (UV) / visible CE 4200 (CECIL) detector. Data showed the average concentration of PAHs in kolanuts at 1.22 ± 0.86 µg/kg. The PAHs concentrations expressed in BaP equivalent (BaPeq) ranging from 0.0009 ± 0.0003 µg/kg-BaPeq to 0.88 ± 0.24 µg/kg-BaPeq for B[ghi] P and D[ah]A. Based on the concentrations and the daily consumption of kolanuts estimated at 0.6 g/person in Côte d'Ivoire, the intakes values estimated of PAHs vary from 6.10-5 µg-BaPeq /day to 6.48.10-4 µg-BaPeq/day with an average of 3.06.10-4 ± 6.6.10-5 µg-BaPeq/day. The exposure daily doses (EDD) are all lower than the toxicity reference values (5 ng-BaPeq/kg BW/d). Thus, the occurrence of a toxic effect from PAHs after kolanuts consumption is very unlikely since the hazard quotient (HQ) are all less than 1. The risk of developing cancer is less than one case per 1,000,000 people.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detecting Environmental Stress of Tropical Lagoon Using Abundance-Biomass Curve of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages (Ebrié lagoon, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa)

Yao Saki Appiah, Yao Aristide Konan, Raphael N’doua Etilé, Zeré Marius Gogbé, Essetchi Paul Kouamélan

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 13-25
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1030188

Sectors IV and V of the Ebrié lagoon are increasingly experiencing fish mortality. The abundance biomass comparison (ABC) is graphical method use to assess the level of environmental disturbance in this area. The aim of the study were to detect the environmental changes caused by anthropogenic activities using ABC curve of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages presented in the studied areas. Results of the ABC analyses indicated that stations L, K and M are less stressed with biomass curve above abundance curve. Stations N and A recorded a stressed environment with abundance curve above biomass curve. The ABC plots showed that N and A stations could be classified as moderately disturbed and polluted. The Clarke's W index to the benthic macroinvertebrates data, confirmed this situation; it ranged from -0,129 (N) to 0,224 (L). The results of the present study can be extrapolated to other tropical wetland systems to predict the levels of disturbance and to identify characteristic organisms to predict the environmental conditions in the wetland health assessment program.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardisation and Quality Evaluation of Finger Millet Based Nutri Flakes

Riya K. Zacharia, E. R. Aneena, Seeja Thomachan Panjikkaran, C. L. Sharon, P. S. Lakshmi

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 36-42
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1030191

Aims: To standardise ready to eat millet based nutri flakes and to evaluate nutritional and shelf life qualities.

Study Design: Completely randomized design

Methodology: In the present study 5 treatments along with one control with 3 replications were standardized. Finger millet flour was used as the major ingredient and used in varying proportions starting from 50 to 80% along with 10 – 50 % of tapioca flour and 10 per cent other ingredients The best treatment were selected through sensory evaluation The selected treatment were evaluated for nutritional and shelf life qualities. The observations were tabulated and analysed statistically as completely randomized design (CRD).

Results: Among various treatments, highest scores of organoleptic qualities was observed for  finger millet based nutri flakes added with tapioca flour (T3-60% FM + 30% TF +10% other ingredients) and it was selected as the best treatment with mean score of 7.92 for overall acceptability. The prepared product was nutritionally superior and highly acceptable throughout the storage.

Conclusion: Nutri flakes based on 60% finger millet flour (FM) along with 30% TF was found to be the best combination for the preparation of nutri flakes and secured the highest mean score of 7.92 for overall acceptability. These nutri flakes were nutritionally superior and were shelf stable for 3 months.

Open Access Original Research Article

Systematic Comparative Study of Selected Antibiotics and Sulphur/ Medicinal Plant Mediated Nano-particles against Non-Leguminous Endophytic Bacteria and Clinical Isolates

Oludare Temitope Osuntokun, Owolabi Mutolib Bankole, Thonda Oluwakemi Abike, Omoyungbo Emmanuel Joy, Ajadi Fatima Adenike

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 43-56
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1030192

The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria is occurring worldwide, endangering the efficacy of antibiotics, therefore, there is a need for a systematic approach to the menace of resistant bacteria. Green synthesized nanoparticle (NPs) of medicinal plant based as become an alternative way out to total eradication of resistant microorganisms, Therefore, the search for new, effective bactericidal agents is imminent significantly, for combating drug resistance microorganism. This research work aims to isolate, identify and characterize endophytic bacteria from five non-leguminous plants, namely Carica papaya, Helianthus annuus, Talinum fruticosum, Phoenix dactylifera, and Solanum lycopersicum. The surface of the plants were sterilized, Isolation, characterization and identification using biochemical characterization of the endophytic bacteria were examined according to Bergey’s manual of Systemic Bacteriology. The sulfur/medicinal plant mediated Nanoparticle with and without Ocimum gratissimum were tested against the endophytic bacteria and selected clinical isolates, for their antimicrobial susceptibility test as described Kirby-Bauer Disc diffusion method. SNP1 was prepared from sodium thiosulfate penthahydrate, citric acid, with fresh leaves of O. gratissimum and characterized by using Shimadzu UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometer UV-3100 with a MPCF-3100 sample compartment while SNP2 was prepared using the same method but without O. gratissimum. The endophyte showed resistant to cephalosporin antibiotics family and SNP2, while all the endophytic bacteria were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (100%), pefloxacin (100%). Streptococcus infectinalis and Cellumonas flavigena showed high susceptibility to sulfur/ plant nanoparticle mediated with Ocimum gratissimum extract (SNP1). The study showed that sulfur/medicinal plant mediated nanoparticle can be a promising antimicrobial agent against a wide range of pathogenic and multiple drug resistance bacteria including both clinical isolates, its uses and practice should be encouraged especially against multiple drug resistance bacteria.