Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Circuit Training on the Cardiovascular Endurance and Quality of Life: Findings from an Apparently Healthy Female Adult Population

Uchenwoke Chigozie Ikenna, Onuoha Gift Ngozichi, Ilo Ijeoma, Nwadilibe Ijeoma, Neboh Ifeanyichukwu, Ogbueche Chukwudi Martin

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i330148

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a 6-week circuit training on the cardiovascular endurance and quality of life of an apparently healthy adult female population.

Methodology: This study adopted a pre and post-test experimental design. A total of 60 adult females who were randomly selected into experimental group and control group participated in the study. The variables for this study were obtained using a proforma which contained the anthropometric parameters, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, maximum oxygen consumption, partial oxygen saturation, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. The stations of exercises used included jumping lunges, curtsy lunges, torso rotation, knee raise claps, abdominal twist or knee combo, kick raise. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and paired t-test. Continuous variables were reported in tables as mean± Standard deviation (SD).

Results: Findings from the study showed that there was a significant difference (P<.05) in partial oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, mean atrial pressure, maximal oxygen consumed, and heart rate. No significant effect was found in the domains of the quality of life of the experimental group.

Conclusion: Circuit training has positive effects towards improvement of cardiovascular endurance and maintenance of functional quality of life (QOL). It is therefore necessary for circuit training to be encouraged as a strategy that can be used among young female adults.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Microbial Groundwater Quality Assessment and Evaluation in Noakhali Region, Bangladesh

Protima Sarker, Sabikun Nahar, Runa Begum, S. K. Sayed Reza, Md. Shiblur Rahaman

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i330149

Groundwater is an essential and valuable natural source of drinking water. But sometime ground water contains different types of chemical or biological substance which make water unsuitable for consumption. Quality of the ground water varies in different location. The recent study emphasized on monitoring the present condition of groundwater in the coastal region of Noakhali. The study area covered 24 different locations of two large Upazila Subarnachar and Kabirhat of Noakhali District. Groundwater quality was examined by analyzing various physicochemical parameters and microbial parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Salinity, Total Hardness, Potassium, Sulphate, Chloride ions, Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and Total Bacterial Viable Count. These parameters were compared with the drinking water quality standards recommended by WHO and Bangladesh local standards. From the analysis, it was observed that pH, Sulphate, Potassium were within the acceptable limit according to WHO and Bangladesh standards. But maximum tube-wells water contains huge amount of TDS (6040 mg/l), EC (1786µs/cm), Salinity (6.8%) and hardness (1050 mg/l), which is not safe for human health. From the correlation studies of the water quality parameters, relatively high positive correlation between some chemical parameters was found. And it signifies a common origin or progressive enrichment of both parameters. The analysis of biological parameters showed the presence of bacteria in many of the water samples. Maximum value of Total coliform found from the groundwater was TNTC and fecal coliform was 3×101 CFU/ml. According to WHO and Bangladesh standard the groundwater of this region is not suitable for drinking. So, some simple primary treatment is needed prior to use this water for drinking purposes and necessary steps should be taken for alternative safe source of drinking water in this region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quarantine vs Social Consciousness: A Prediction to Control COVID-19 Infection

Md. Shahriar Mahmud, Md. Kamrujjaman, J. Jubyrea, Md. Shahidul Islam, Md. Shafiqul Islam

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i330150

Background: The world is now in an emergency of preventing the drastic spread of COVID-19. After the infection was first reported in December 2019, almost every country did not pay attention to this highly contaminated disease and failed to react swiftly. Now the whole planet is in an vulnerable state, resulting to increase the mortality rate and facing difficulties in all socio-economic aspects. That is why we have the urge to develop an efficient mathematical model (quarantine) based on social consciousness to control the epidemic.

Methods: This is a quarantine mathematical model. The outcome of the system is dependent on social consciousness. We have calculated the awareness level by considering various socio-economic factor of each country. In our model, the parameters are Education Index, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, population density, high literacy and stable economy. To maximize the efficiency of the model, it has to be implemented in initial stage. However, strict
application of the method in vigorous stage of epidemic will also bring a satisfactory outcome.

Results: In Spain, quarantine was effected on March 14, 2020. Spain experienced an increase in reported cases for 13 days of quarantine enforcement and from the 14th day, daily reported cases started to decrease with small fluctuation. Government ensured the social isolation through quarantine. After imposition of a quarantine on March 9, 2020 in Italy, within 13 days of lock-down, the maximum number of infection started to decrease. Similar results observed in France. Higher social consciousness would decrease the number of infected population dramatically while minimal or lower awareness will do a outburst.

Conclusion: Outbreak will be in control of health care system which yields to reduce the death rate and will ensure social and economic stability.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Chitosan Encapsulated Bromelain against Eggs, Larval and Adult Stages of Haemonchus contortus

Arthur Hunduza, John Kagira, Naomi Maina, Dickson Andala, Kipyegon Cheruiyot, Shadrack Kahiro

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 28-38
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i330151

The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro ovicidal, larvicidal and adult mortality activity of bromelain encapsulated in chitosan nanocarriers against H. contortus. Bromelain was isolated from peels of ripe pineapple from Kiambu County, Kenya. Isolation of bromelain was conducted with several stages of fractionations with ammonia sulphate salt and dialysis. Encapsulation of bromelain was done by use of methyl cellulose-chitosan in order to control release and activity. The encapsulated chitosan nanocarriers were then subjected to in vitro ovicidal, larvicidal and adult mortality activity according to standard procedures. The results of the assays showed that encapsulated bromelain had an IC50 of 0.249 mg/ml, 0.251 mg/ml and 0.140 mg/ml on the egg hatch, larval and adult worm mortality assays, respectively. All these values showed better activity than bromelain although there was no significant difference (p˃0.05) between activities of encapsulated bromelain and bromelain. There was also a significant difference (p<0.05), between Albendazole and the rest of the test drugs. In conclusion, this study has shown that encapsulated bromelain has anthelmintic activity on different developmental stages of H. contortus parasite and that it should be further investigated and developed as a novel anthelmintic drug for control of H. contortus and hence improve production of small ruminants.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Enrichment Nutrients on the Growth of Indigenous Bacteria Species in Spent Lubricating Oil Contaminated Water

Tudararo-Aherobo Laurelta

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 39-48
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i330152

Aim: This study was conducted to compare the effects of enrichment nutrients, NPK (Nitrogen, Posphorus, Potassium) and organic wastes on the growth of indigenous bacterial species in spent lubricating oil contaminated water. Six bacterial species which were isolated from spent lubricating oil impacted soils (Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Actinomyces sp., Acinetobacter sp., Enterobacter sp., and Micrococcus sp.,) and showed profuse utilization of spent lubricating oil on screening, were used for this study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the laboratory of the Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, between 2018 and 2019.

Methodology: The study and was conducted using Mineral Salts Medium broth, spent lubricating oil substrate and NPK (20:10:10), Chicken droppings and Cow dung as nutrient sources (biostimulants). The effect of the biostimulants on the growth of the bacterial isolates was assessed weekly for 14 days by measuring the turbidity, bacterial counts and pH.

Results: Pseudomonas sp. recorded the highest count of 1.16E+19 CFU/ml, 2.53E+17 CFU/ml and 1.74E+14 CFU/ml for biostimulation with NPK, Chicken droppings and Cow dungs respectively. The treatment with NPK enhanced the bacterial isolates most, of the three treatments used at the end of the test period. The pH values obtained for the test cultures at the end of the study, ranged from 6.52±0.02 for Enterobacter sp. in Cow dung treated cultures to7.85±0.03 for Pseudomonas sp.in NPK treated cultures. The values were within the optimum biodegradation range of 6.50 -8.50. There was significant difference between the bacterial counts obtained with the cultures treated with NPK and Chicken droppings (P=0.006), between NPK and cow dungs (P = 0.031) and between NPK and the control (P = 0.033). The study affirms the benefits of using organic wastes in the bioremediation process of hydrocarbon contaminated sites; it enhances the nutrients required by the bacteria for the remediation process and it’s a waste management strategy for disposing these organic wastes at very minimal costs and in an ecofriendly manner.