Open Access Original Research Article

The Climbing Performance, Neuromuscular Transmitter (ACHE) Activity, Reproductive Performance and Survival of Drosophila melanogaster Fed Diet with Mangifera indica Cold Aqueous Leaf Extract

Etuh Monday Alexander, John Chinyere Aguiyi, Iorjiim Walter Mdekera, Ochala Sunshine Ogwu, Oyeniran Oluwatosin Imoleayo, Chinelo Vera Ugokwe, Dung Pam

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i230120

Objective: To screen the toxic effect of Mangifera indica aqueous leaf extract in Drosophila melanogaster.

Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out. 20 Adult flies were exposed to 7.5 mg, 15 mg,  30 mg, 45 mg and 100 mg /10 g diet for acute toxicity (168hrs) while 50 flies were exposed to 2.5 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg/10 g diet for sub chronic (28 days). All concentrations were prepared in 1000µl of distilled water and replicated three (3) times. Diet+1000µl of Distilled water served as control. Fecundity/developmental toxicity, Climbing and AChE activities were carried out by exposing flies to the sub-chronic concentrations for 5 days.

Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids. The acute toxicity test showed 100% mortality at 100 mg/ 10 g diet and 168hrs LC50 was 72.4 mg/10 g diet. The sub chronic toxicity test showed decrease in flies survival along concentration with a least survival at 10 mg/10 g diet. There was a slight reduction and elevation in the Climbing and AChE activities respectively but not statistically significant (p>0.05) compared to control. At 5 mg and 10 mg/10 g diet there was a delay in the development with few emerged flies.

Conclusion: From the Results, it can be concluded that Mangiferaindica aqueous leaf extract may be toxic at high dose from 72.4 mg/10 g diet and might have an adverse effect on the development and survival of flies at sub chronic concentration as low as 2.5 mg/10g diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing Organic Matter Content under Four Different Land Uses in Uloanondugba, Imo State, Nigeria

O. U. Onyegbule, E. O. Azu Donatus, S. A. Ike, U. Akagha

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i230121

The variability of organic matter across four contrasting land uses namely oil palm plantation OPPL, sand mining site SM,  tenuously cultivated land CCL and primary Forest (PFL) were evaluated in Imo State. Results obtained showed that the percentage of sand decreased down the depths in all the land uses: PFL, CCL, OPPL, SM which were 76.6, 76.1, 77.7 and 70% respectively. The soils ranged from sandy loam to sandy clay loam in texture. The SM had the highest mean bulk density of 1.76 g/cm3 against the lowest mean value of 1.52 g/cm3 in the PFL. Similarly the PFL had the highest mean percentage organic matter of 2.12% as well as the lowest coefficient of variation 7.8% compared to the high coefficient of variations observed in the other land uses. The sand mining had 68% coefficient of variation while the CCL, OPPL had coefficient variations of 58% and 52% respectively indicating high variations .There was little or no variations in the percentage total nitrogen as well as available phosphorus in the PFL compared to the high variation in the other land uses. Land uses that depleted the essential nutrients in the soil should be avoided. Mulching and conservation tillage that tends to restore the soils nutrient ability should be adopted and sustained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Dynamics of Five Important Commercial Fish Species in the Sundarbans Ecosystem of Bangladesh

Md. Golam Mustafa, Imran Ahmed, Mohammod Ilyas

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i230122

Aims: To determine the population dynamics and assess the exploitation level of Mystus gulio, Acanthopagrus latus, Chelon parsia, Otolithoides pama and Lates calcarifer in the Sundarbans ecosystem of Bangladesh.

Study Design: Monthly length-frequency data of five fish species were collected from the Sundarbans ecosystem. The lengths of five fish species were recorded to the nearest one cm intervals in each month.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted from January to December 2011 in the Sundarbans ecosystem in Bangladesh.

Methodology: The FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT II) software was used to estimate the von Bertalanffy growth parameters (L∝ and K), mortality coefficients (Z, M and F), probability of capture, recruitment pattern and Yield/Biomass-per-recruit for five commercially important fish species caught by fishers in the Sundarbans ecosystem of Bangladesh.

Results: In the Sundarbans ecosystem of Bangladesh area the values of asymptotic length (L∝) for Mystus gulio, Acanthopagrus latus, Chelon parsia, Otolithoides pama and Lates calcarifer were found to be 23.0 cm, 33.6 cm, 30.0 cm, 32.5 cm and 55.0 cm respectively while the growth co-efficient (K) were 0.75, 0.85, 1.1, 0.8 and 0.5 respectively. The estimates for L∝ (23.00 – 55.0 cm) and K (0.5-1.1 year-1) obtained were consistent with those available in the literature. Relatively high K and low L∝ values, typical of short-lived tropical fishes, were obtained for Mystus gulio, Acanthopagrus latus, Chelon parsia and Otolithoides pama. The length growth performance index (ϕ’) of the Pauly and Munro’s function was in the range of 2.599 – 3.180. Natural mortality, fishing mortality and total mortality were in the range of 0.956-1.89, 0.55-1.58 and 1.52-3.3 respectively. Estimates for total mortality (Z) and natural mortality (M) imply low annual rates of survival and high turnover rates. The recruitment pattern suggested one main pulse of annual recruitment. The exploitation rate was estimated to be between 27% and 47% and the length at first capture was estimated to be approximately 19-54% of L∝. The exploitation rate obtained for five fish species are relatively lower compared to other available studies in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. The growth and exploitation rates obtained were compared with available estimates to evaluate the consistency of the results with current knowledge about the species in the region.

Conclusion: The study indicated that the length-at-first-capture/L∝ seem to be a simple parameter, which could be used to make a rapid assessment of the status of the stocks. All together, the present study reveals that the population of these five studied species attains acceptable sustainability levels in the Sundarbans ecosystem and scope for a slight increase in catch efforts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Antibiotic Producing Bacteria from Soil Samples of Abattoir in Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria

E. I. Uwalaka, Z. J. Kassim, A. R. Abdulmumin, A. Hamzat

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i230123

Antimicrobial agents or antibiotics are the most significant commercially available and utilized secondary metabolites, which are highly produced by the soil microbes (bacteria and fungi) and found to be effective and broad spectrum. Microbes produce metabolic products (antimicrobial agents) through the process called antibiosis. Majority of the classes of antibiotics used are derivatives of animals (microbes) and floras (plants). But currently, the microbial resistance is at the top gear which requires more effort to come up with novel structure, effectual, toxic free and reasonable cost of new antimicrobial products against microbial infections. In the present study, a trial was made to isolate, identify and characterize the antibiotic producing bacteria from the soil samples collected from different sites of abattoir in Lapai, using the standard microbiological techniques. A total of nine (9) bacterial of both groups (Gram positive and negative) which includes Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogene, Clostridium specie, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas species, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated in the course of the study. Pseudomonas species was the most frequently isolated bacteria (33.33%) while the rest of the isolates were 8.33% across the five different sampling sites. These isolates were further screened against some pathogenic microbes viz, Salmonella sp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Three of the bacterial isolates isolated from the abattoir were found to exhibits antimicrobial activity against two pathogenic bacteria used in this study. This study indicates that some of the soil microorganisms could be an interesting source of antimicrobial bioactive substances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics and Antibiogram Studies of Bacteria Associated with Vegetables Stored In Raffia Baskets in Nigeria

D. N. Ogbonna, S. I. Douglas, M. E. Inana

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i230124

Raffia baskets are used in rural communities to preserve fresh vegetables for a given period of time. This method of storage is aimed at extending the shelf life of the vegetables until they are used. Thus, this study was aimed at determining the microbial succession during storage and susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from stored leafy vegetables to various antibiotics. Five (5) leafy vegetables namely, Bitter leaf (Vernomia anydalira), Water leaf (Talinum triangulare), Fluted pumpkin leaf, (Telfairia occidentalis), Okazi leaf (Gnetum africana) and Scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum) were obtained from the Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) farm, Port Harcourt. These vegetables were stored in a raffia basket for fourteen (14) days while another set of the vegetables were left in the open air as control. This set up was monitored for changes to occur.  Standard microbiological techniques were employed for the various analyses of the vegetable samples. Both cultural and molecular characterizations of the isolates were done. The disc diffusion method was used in determining the susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates. The results of the predominant microorganisms identified were of the genus; Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bordetella, Staphylococcus, Myroides, Escherichia, Serratia, Micrococcus and Acetobacter.  Also, Bacillus species occurred in all the vegetables while Enterococcus faecalis, Acetobacter orientalis, Bordetella pertussis, Myroides xuanwuensis and Bacillus flexus were isolated on the third day of storage from the vegetables. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 1.8 x106 cfu/g to 1.25 x107 cfu/g (bitter leaf), 9x105 cfu/g to 9.0 x106 cfu/g (Scent leaf), 7 x105 cfu/g to 1.88 x107 cfu/g (Okazi), 3.2x10cfu/g to 1.05x107 cfu/g (Fluted pumpkin leaf) and 8.4 x106 cfu/g to 2.04 x107 cfu/g (water leaf). Antibiogram of bacterial isolates revealed that they were resistant to Augmentin and Ceftazidime according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute schemes. Combination of the antibiotics showed that most of the isolates were 100% susceptible to ciprofloxacin + erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin + ceftriaxone. The study revealed that for all the vegetables, those stored in the basket lasted longer and were fresher compared to those kept in the open space. This study revealed that the raffia baskets are suitable for storage and preservation of leafy vegetables, but microbial succession occurred as a result of increase in the period of storage leading to the proliferation of microorganisms. This could be from aerosols or by chance inoculation, through handling or materials used or other microorganisms which are inherent in the vegetables because of their contact with the soil or water used in the washing of the leaves.