Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Non-secretion of ABH Antigens and Sickle Cell Anaemia

C. Igbeneghu, J. M. Olisekodiaka, O. A. Fawole, A. O. Ayoola

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i130115

Aim: To determine whether non-secretion of ABH blood group antigens was associated with Sickle Cell Anaemia.

Materials and Methods: Haemaglutination inhibition test was carried out on saliva samples from 300 individuals; 100 of whom had haemoglobin (Hb) genotype AA, 100 HbAS, 50 HbAC and 50 HbSS. ABO blood grouping was carried out by standard methods and Haemoglobin genotype test was performed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis technique.

Results: Eighteen percent (18%) of HbAA, 23% of HbAS, 18% of HbAC and 42% of HbSS individuals were non-secretors of ABH antigens (p = 0.007). Non-secretion of ABH substances was more associated with HbSS persons than HbAA (p = 0.002), HbAS (p = 0.016) and HbAC (p = 0.009) individuals.

Conclusion: Non-secretion of ABH blood group substances is associated with Sickle Cell Anaemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Mannose/Glucose-binding Pterocarpus osun Craib. Seeds Lectin

Oludele O. Odekanyin, Oluwatosin O. Akande

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i130116

Objective: This study was carried out to purify and characterize a carbohydrate-binding and cell-agglutinating protein, lectin, from Pterocarpus osun seeds and also to evaluate its antioxidant and antibacterial potential.

Methods: Isolation and purification of the lectin were done by ammonium sulphate precipitation and size exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-100. Physicochemical properties of the lectin were determined and antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay. A disc diffusion method was used for antibacterial effect.

Results: Lectin was detected in the seeds and was able to agglutinate native and enzyme-treated rabbit erythrocytes but only enzyme-treated erythrocytes of human blood were agglutinated. Mannose, Maltose and α-methylmannoside inhibited the divalent cation-independent hemagglutinating activity, which was stable up to 60°C and at pH range of 3-13. It showed antioxidant activity with IC50 of 1.17 ± 0.08, 0.58 ± 0.03, and 2.51 ± 0.03 mg/ml for those methods respectively. No antibacterial activity was observed.

Conclusion: Pterocarpus osun seeds lectin possess properties similar to other lectins from Dalbergieae tribe and its ability to scavenge free radical and inhibit lipid peroxidation show the presence of a valuable health promoting agent in the seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Functional Properties for Different Blends of Flours

C. E. Kalu, I. C. Alaka, F. C. Ekwu

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i130117

Functional properties of flour blends from water yam, yellow maize and African yam bean were investigated in this study. Standard method for dry- milling operation was used in the flour processing. Four flour samples were compounded in the ratios of (AFK) 40%WY: 30%YM: 30%AYB; (BGL) 50%WY: 20%YM: 30%AYB; (CHM) 60% WY: 10%YM: 30%AYB (DIN) and 100%WY (EJO) was used as control. Standard methods were used to determine the functional properties. The result showed that bulk density which influences packaging arrangement ranged from 0.58 to 0.76 g/ml; water solubility index ranged from 5.80 to 9.20 g/g and water absorption capacity ranged from 1.00 to 1.46 g/g, the oil absorption capacity ranged from 1.44 to 2.02 g/g. Addition of yellow maize and African yam bean improved significantly (p<0.05) the functional properties of the flour blend generally and particularly flour sample (DIN) 60%WY: 10%YM: 30%AYB. The improvement in the functional properties would enhance both the nutritional and sensory properties of the flour mixtures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Chemical Parameters of “Cagaita” (Eugenia dysenterica) at Different Maturity Stages

Antônia M. Lima Alvarenga, Rodrigo E. Vassoler Silva, Patrícia M. Crivelari Costa, Daniella Moreira Pinto, Luiz José Rodrigues

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i130118

The cagaita fruit is widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado and is ideal for their sensory peculiarities, may be constituted in rich vehicle of vitamins and minerals, and its limited consumption to an essentially extractive process. This study aimed to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of cagaita fruit (Eugenia dysenterica) from the Cerrado biome, especially of Mato Grosso State. The selection of fruits was made by their condition, at different maturity stages: Stage 1, fruits with greenish to yellowish hulls; Stage 2, fully yellowish hulls fruits attached to the mother plant; Stage 3, intense yellow hulls fruits with detachment from the mother plant. The fresh weight for cagaita fruit was 9.62 g; the longitudinal and transverse diameters were 20.75 mm and 243.09 mm, respectively. The fruit can be considered a perishable fruit due to its high moisture content, around 88%, besides presenting significant protein (1.69%), compared to other fruits. Still has reduced lipid values (0.19%) and carbohydrates (7.4%), resulting in a fruit with low calorific value (36.6 kcal). The vitamin C index found was significant, around 55.02 mg.100g-1 in the ripe fruit. The cagaita fruit shows potential for industrialization due to low energy values and lipid and carbohydrate contents, as well as outstanding levels of vitamin C, which can contribute beneficially to health.

Open Access Original Research Article

HPLC-UV Standard Phenolic Constituents of African Bush Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) and Molecular Docking on Polyphenol Oxidases

Catherine Joke Adeseko, David Morakinyo Sanni, Sule Ola Salawu, Ige Joseph Kade, Toluwase Hezekiah Fatoki

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i130119

Introduction: Irvingia gabonensis belongs to the Irvingiaceae plant family and commonly known as the African bush mango, wild mango, Dika nut and Manguier sauvage. The fruits of I. gabonensis are edible and their use in traditional medicine has been reported for the treatment of diabetes, diarrhea, wound ulcer, hepatic disorder, microbial infections, and inflammatory pains. 

Aim: This study aimed to identify the standard phenolic contents of I. gabonensis fruit pulp and peel extracts and investigate the bind energy on polyphenol oxidase in order to know why browning of I. gabonensis fruit is often rapidly occur and how to prevent it with suitable inhibitor in an industrial processing.

Results: The phenolics that were identified include ellagic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid, 3-friedelanone, lupeol, kaempferol, quercetin, alpha-curcumene and zingiberene. The two PPO from Solanum lycopersicum (PDB ID: 6HQI) and Mangifera indica (PDB: D2XZ13_model) have different binding energies across the ligands with highest score by 3-friedelanone (-14.3 and -16.1 kcal/mol respectively), followed by lupeol (-13.9 and -14.6 kcal/mol respectively). The differences in the binding energies across the plant PPOs could be due to variation in the amino acid composition and more importantly the amino acid residues that participate in the catalytic and allosteric activities

Conclusion: This study has shown the reason behind rapid browning that usually occur in I. gabonensis and more importantly, the need for effective edible inhibitors of PPO.