Open Access Original Research Article

Ascertainment of In vivo Antidiarrheal and In vitro Thrombolytic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Amomum dealbatum

Md. Azimul Islam, Mohammed Aktar Sayeed, Md. Abdul Barek, Enama Nabi Shetu, Md. Nurul Faisal

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v21i130093

Aims: The present study aimed to investigate antidiarrheal and thrombolytic effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of A. dealbatum in mice.

Study design: Antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by castor oil-induced diarrhea method at two different concentrations in mice and in vitro thrombolytic activity was analyzed with clot lysis assay of human blood.

Place and duration of study: Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, Kumira, Chittagong-4318, Bangladesh, between December 2018 and February 2019.

Methodology: The male Swiss mice’s were divided into four groups (n = 5). First group was orally treated with 1% Tween-80 (10 ml/kg) and second group was orally treated with loperamide (5 mg/kg). Third and fourth group were orally treated with ethanolic extract of leaves of A. dealbatum at 200 and 400 mg/kg accordingly. Human RBCs were collected for conducting thrombolytic assay. During this study, 1.5 ml of venous blood was drawn from healthy volunteers (n = 10) and Streptokinase was employed as positive control and distilled water was employed as negative control.

Results: In castor oil induced diarrhea model, ethanolic extract of leaves of A. dealbatum at 200, 400 mg/kg and loperamide (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of feces and increase percent of inhibition of defecations compared to negative control. The extract showed percent of inhibition of defecation of 16.67 and 37.50 for 200 and 400 mg/ml respectively where the positive control loperamide showed 66.67%. Percentage of clot disruptions were 4.51 (p<.001), 75.69 (p<.001) and 26.07 (p<.001) for water, streptokinase and 10 mg/ml extract respectively.

Conclusion: Based on the results from in vivo and in vitro activities, the leaves of A. dealbatum were found to be a potential source of new antidiarrheal and thrombolytic agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Flax Seed Oil on Acute Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Injury and Determination of Hepatic Apoptosis in Rats

Gorkem Ekebas, Ayhan Atasever, Duygu Yaman Gram

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v21i130094

Aims: The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of flaxseed oil (FSO) on liver lesions induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats by measurement of caspase 3, 8 and 9 activities in cellular apoptosis, ALT activities, triglyceride, total protein, total cholesterol and liver MDA levels.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology, Erciyes University, Kayseri, between June 2017 and July 2018.

Methodology: In this study 32 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups of 8 animals in each. The first group was identified as the control and received an intraperitoneal 0.9% NaCl and the second group was given per os at dose of 4 ml/kg FSO for 4 weeks. The third group received an intraperitoneal dose of 1.0 ml/kg CCl4 twice in the first week. The fourth group received an intraperitoneal dose of 1.0 ml/kg CCl4 twice in the first week and simultaneously 4 ml/kg FSO by gavage for 4 weeks.

Results: Histopathological examination of CCl4 group showed intense macro and micro vesicular steatosis in hepatocytes, necrosis, lymphocytes rich mononuclear cell infiltration in portal area and parenchyma. The flaxseed oil application did not ameliorate the histological changes induced by CCl4, however reduced the activity of caspase 3, 8 and 9 by a limited number. CCl4 administration produced significantly elevated levels of serum ALT activity, total cholesterol, triglyceride and liver MDA levels, and these increases were not normalized with FSO treatment. In addition, decreased serum total protein levels in CCl4 treated group were ameliorated by FSO application.

Conclusion: The results indicate that the antioxidant properties of FSO do not have an ameliorative effect in either the histopathological lesions or biochemical parameters against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In addition, it was concluded that duration‐dependent further research results are needed to determine the effects of flaxseed oil in high doses that can give the best results without side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Yam Postharvest Activities on Standard of Living of Yam Farming Households in North-East Zone of Benue State, Nigeria

Solomon Arumun Agba, Idu Ode, Comfort Ugbem, Solomon Chimela Nwafor

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v21i130095

Aims: The aim of the study was to identify postharvest activities of yam farming households in North-East Zone of Benue State, Nigeria and to assess the impact of losses from the yam postharvest activities on standard of living of yam farming households in North-East Zone of Benue State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Survey research design was adopted for the study.

Place and Duration of Study: North-East Zone of Benue State, Nigeria.

Methodology: The study purposively selected three (3) local government areas (Ukum, Katsina-Ala and Logo) that are most prominent in yam production in North-East Zone of Benue State  from where a total  sample size of two hundred and four (204) yam farming households were drawn from three local government areas of North-East Zone of Benue state using multi-stage cluster sampling technique.

Results: Almost all the farmers 99% (202) store their yams and majority of the farmers are also involved in yam marketing. Majority of the famers 84% (172) always need to transport their yams. This could be in order to access distant markets which make for more gain. The few who do not need to transport their produce could be those who sale at farm gates. This could also be the reason why only a few 64% (130) majority take time to sort, grade and clean their produce. With the computed f-statistic value of 512.110 which was significantly higher than the tabulated f-value of 16.26 at 1% level of significance and 5.05 at 5% level of significance, therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. This implies that, yam loss from yam postharvest activities noted above has a significant negative impact on the standard of living of yam farming households in the study area by reducing their household income (99%), affecting their access to health care services (89%), access to education (64%), access to good housing (84%) and access to sufficient quality food (98%).

Conclusion: The study thus concludes that, yam loss during postharvest activities such as: yam handling, yam storage, yam transportation, yam sorting / grading / cleaning and yam marketing has significant negative impact on the standard of living of yam farming households in the study area, by reducing their household income, affecting their access to health care services, access to education, access to good housing and access to sufficient quality food. The study recommends communication of knowledge on modern yam storage methods to yam farmers in the study area by agricultural extension agents and building of yam processing factories in the study area so as to add economic value to yam and consequently improve the standard of living of yam farming households in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Larvicidal Activity of Two Cymbopogon Species Leaf Extracts and Essential Oils against Anopheles gambiae Gilles (Diptera: Culicidae)

Aurore Christelle Sengue Batti, Lame Younoussa, Elias Nchiwan Nukenine, Mallam Kary Oumarou, Abraham Fomena

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v21i130096

Aims: The present investigation aimed to assess the toxic effect of hexane, acetone and methanol extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus against 3rd and 4th instar of Anopheles gambiae larvae under laboratory conditions.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant products were extracted from November 2017 to February 2018 in the Chemistry laboratory, while the larvicidal tests were conducted from April to June 2018 in the laboratory of Applied Zoology of the Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon.

Methodology: Twenty five (25) 3rd and 4th instars of An. gambiae were subjected to methanol, acetone and methanol plant extracts of the two plants at doses of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 mg/L each while their essential oils were tested at concentrations of 200, 100, 50 and 25 mg/L. Dichlovos tested at the recommended dose of 1000 mg/L was performed as positive control while 1mL of tween-80 in 99 mL of natural breeding site water was used as negative control. Larval mortality was recorded after 24 h post treatment for plant extracts and after 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h post-exposure for plant essential oils.

Results: At the highest concentration of 1000 mg/L, C. citratus extract caused 100% mortality of mosquito larvae while 84, 81 and 88% mortality of larvae were recorded with hexane, acetone and methanol leaf extract of C. giganteus, respectively. C. citratus (LC50=58.32 mg/L) and C. giganteus (LC50=372.36 mg/L) hexane extracts were more potent than acetone and methanol extracts of the plants. C. citratus extracts were the most effective against larvae compared to C. giganteus extracts. Essential oil of C. citratus (LC50=27.98 mg/L after 1h) was also the most toxic on mosquito larvae compared to C. giganteus (LC50=180.07 mg/L after 1h) essential oil.

Conclusion: C. citratus plant and specially its hexane extract and essential oil could be taken into consideration as a new source of botanical insecticide and may be used in the mosquito control programs for An. gambiae larvae elimination in their breeding sites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Grape Seed Oil on Chronic Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury and Determination of Hepatic Apoptosis in Rats

Ayhan Atasever, Ahmet Alpay, Gorkem Ekebas, Duygu Yaman Gram

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v21i130097

Aims: The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of grape seed oil (GSO) on liver lesions induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. The effects on hepatic injury were investigated by measuring serum levels of ALT, triglyceride, total protein, total cholesterol and liver levels of MDA. Furthermore, caspase -3, -8 and -9 activities in cellular apoptosis were determined.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology, Erciyes University, Kayseri, between November 2017 and September 2018.

Methodology: In this study 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups including 10 animals in each. Control group administered with 0.9% NaCl. The second group was administered with 4 mL/kg GSO for twelve weeks. Third group were given CCl4 (0.2 mL/kg) twice for 8-weeks. Fourth group was administered with 4 mL/kg GSO, for 12 weeks and also given CCl4 (0.2 mL/kg) twice for 8 weeks, starting from the 5th week.

Results: Histopathological examination of CCl4 group showed intense macro and micro vesicular steatosis in hepatocytes, necrosis, and lymphocytes rich mononuclear cell infiltration in portal area and mild portal fibrosis in the parenchyma. The grape seed oil applications have partially normalized the altered histological changes and the activity of caspase -3, -8 and -9. Administration of GSO led to a decline in the activities of ALT and MDA levels while this treatment elevated serum triglycerides levels which are not significantly important.

Conclusion: The results indicate that the antioxidant properties of GSO have not ameliorative effect in either the histopathological lesions or biochemical parameters against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Also, it has been concluded that duration‐dependent further research results are needed to determine the effects of grape seed oil in high doses which can give the best results without side effects.