Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes in Various Rice Genotypes under Different Nitrogen Levels

K. Sivasabari, S. Jothimani

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i430088

The experiment was conducted during 2017, Pishanam season at Rice Research Station, Ambasamudram with the objective to screen the efficient and responsive rice genotypes based on nitrogen use efficiency and yield and yield attributes of different genotypes by N levels with 32 rice genotypes as main plot treatments and four nitrogen levels N0 (control), N1 (50% recommended dose of N ha-1), N2 (100% recommended dose of N ha-1) and N3 (150% recommended dose of N ha-1) as subplot treatments. The experimental results showed that, the highest grain and straw yields were recorded at N3 (180 kg ha-1) by the most of the rice genotypes, except the AS 12051, ACK 14004, CB08702, CB 13539 and PM 12009 which were not responded genotypes for higher dose of (180 kg ha-1) nitrogen. In the genotypes ASD 16, ADT 43, ADT 45, CO 51, MDU 5, CB 14508, CB 14533, TR 0927, TR 13069 and TM 12061 the AE was increasing with increasing level of nitrogen, other genotypes showed decreasing trend with increasing level of nitrogen levels. The genotypes viz., ASD16, ADT39, ADT45, TPS 5, AD09206, CB06803, ACK14001, TM10085, TM12007, PM12009 and EC725224 are under Efficient and responsive (ER) category which gives average yield at low level and high N use efficiency. The plant height, productive tillers, total grains, harvest index, panicle length and 1000 grain weights given verified results among the genotypes due to genetic characters. Among the N levels the plant height, panicle length, productive tillers per hill and total grains showed highest in 180 kg N ha-1. 1000 grain weight increased at low level of 50% of RDN (21.0) and decreased to 20.8 in N2 and N3 treatments which indicated higher doses of N. N harvest index were decreased with increasing level of N application from 0.70 (N0), 0.65(N1), 0.64 (N2) and 0.63 (N3).

Open Access Original Research Article

Concentrations and Risk Evaluation of Selected Heavy Metals in Amaranthus (L.) Leaf Cultivated in Katsina State, North West Nigeria

A. I. Yaradua, A. J. Alhassan, A. Nasir, K. I. Matazu, A. Usman, A. Idi, I. U. Muhammad, S. A. Yaro, Y. Y. Muhammad

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i430089

Bioaccumulation of seven heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn) in  Amaranthus leaf cultivated in Katsina state Nigeria were measured using atomic absorption spectrometer. The health risks to the local inhabitants from the consumption of the Amaranthus leaf were evaluated based on the Target Hazard Quotient. The possibility of cancer risks in the Amaranthus (L.) leaf through the intake of carcinogenic heavy metals was estimated using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk. The target hazard quotient was (THQ)>1, indicating that the Amaranthus leaf cultivated may pose a non-carcinogenic risk for all the studied metals. Hazard index (HI) was low. The incremental cancer risk (ILCR) for Cd  violated the threshold risk limit (>10−4) and ILCR for Pb reached the moderate risk limit (>10−3) in all the studied samples in adults, While in children ILCR for both Pb in samples from Dabai, Daura, Funtua, Matazu and Zango and Cd for all samples have reached the moderate risk limit (>10−3), while the ILCR for Pb in samples from Birchi, Dutsinma, Kafur, Katsina and Malunfashi are beyond the moderate risk level (>10−2). The study suggests that consumption of Amaranthus leaf cultivated in Katsina may contribute to the population cancer burden.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of Fe2+ and SNP Lipid Peroxidation of African Mistletoes (Tapinanthus globiferus) from Three Selected Host Plants in Jos Plateau State Nigeria

Jane-Rose I. Oche, Titilayo O. Johnson, Augustina O. Akinsanmi, Kiri H. Jaryum, Timothy Francis

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i430090

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the antioxidative properties of the mistletoe plant obtained from three different host species namely Psidium guajava, Vernonia amygdalina and Moringa olifera lam.

Study Design: Experimental Design

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Methodology: Crude methanolic leaf extracts were studied for their antioxidative properties; Iron reducing and Iron-chelating activities, Nitric oxide (NO) radical and 2,2-diphenyl 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities and the lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBAR) methods. One way ANOVA was used for the result analysis with P<.05 for significant difference.

Results: Mistletoes from Psidum guajava (MSPG) had significantly higher reducing property (0.16 – 0.20mg/mL); the chelating property of Mistletoes from Moringa olifera (MSMO) was significantly lower (45.7 – 58.9%); DPPH radical scavenging activity had no significant difference; and Nitric oxide scavenging activity was significantly higher in MSPG (72.1% in 75mg/mL) than the extracts from other hosts. MSPG had significantly higher TBAR inhibition using both FeSO4 (77.8% at 125µg/mL) and Sodium nitroprusside (61.6+1.0% at 125µg/mL) with an IC50 of 30.27µg/mL . Extract of Tapinanthus globiferus leaves from Psidium guajava had more antioxidative activities in the TBARs followed by Tapinanthus globiferus leaf extract from Vernonia amygdalina (MSVA).

Conclusion: From the study, mistletoes from Psidium guajava had higher antioxidant activity compared to other hosts, which probably justifies its use for treatment of cancer in traditional medicinal practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nitrogen Doses and Humic Substances in Custard Apple Nutrition

Bismark Lopes Bahia, Ivan Vilas Bôas Souza, Alex Barbosa Mafessoni, Ranyelly Leão Coutrim, Roberlan Ferreira da Silva, Breno Rosa Neves, José Carlson Gusmão da Silva, Abel Rebouças São José

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i430091

Custard apple production (Annona squamosa L.) in the Brazilian Northeast occurs throughout the year. Its management involves pruning, irrigation, and proper nutrition. The objective of the present work was to verify the influence of different doses of nitrogen and the use of humic substances on soil chemical attributes and tree custard apple nutrition. The experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard in the municipality of Anagé, Southwest region of the state of Bahia, in a randomized block design in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, four nitrogen doses (0, 284, 568 and 852 g per plant, urea) with and without the application of humic substances (Ks100), with 4 replicates. Soil chemical characteristics, macro and micronutrient contents were evaluated in the leaves of the custard apple tree. Nitrogen rates reduced soil pH and the availability of calcium, magnesium and boron. The application of humic substances increased the content of potassium in leaves. Under the conditions studied, high nitrogen doses influence soil fertility and the application of humic substances does not improve the absorption of most of the nutrients, except potassium, and it did not influence the chemical attributes of the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Status of Breast, Cervical and Ovarian Cancer Patients at Various Menopausal Stages in Lagos State, Nigeria

E. I. Ayo, M. F. Asaolu, O. G. Oyebanji, I. Akinlua, A. A. Sonuga

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i430092

Cancer is a collection of diseases which involves the abnormal growth of cells with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The aim of this study is to access the antioxidant status of women with female predominant cancer (breast, cervical and ovarian) in relationship with their menopausal stages. Blood samples were collected from 180 freshly diagnosed female patients of breast, cervical and ovarian cancer at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Idi- Araba, Mushin, Lagos and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja, Lagos and 60 relatively healthy subjects at different menopausal stages. Serum catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activites, Reduced Glutathione (GSH), Vitamin C and E concentrations were evaluated in subject’s blood sample using standard established methods. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis (p<0.05). However, the results of the female cancer patients at each menopausal stage were compared to premenopausal, menopausal and postmenopausal control groups, while the results obtained from the menopausal and postmenopausal control subjects were compared to the premenopausal control subjects. There was significant decrease (p<0.05) in the activities of CAT, SOD and in the concentrations of GSH, Vitamins C and E in all the menopausal stages when compared to the control groups. However, MDA concentrations showed significant increase (p<0.05) in all the menopausal stages in comparison to the corresponding control groups. These findings suggest that cancer patients might be at risk from oxidative cell damage. Therefore, further research is required in this field with a view of improving the management of cancers predominant in females.