Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiarrheal and Antimotility Activities of Stem Bark Extracts of Annona reticulata Linn. in Mice Model

Sharmin Jahan, Auditi Kar, Abhijit Das, Md. Ashraf Uddin Chowdhury, Mohammad Safiqul Islam, Md. Hasanuzzaman

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i330082

The study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical screening, in vivo evaluation of antidiarrheal activity, and GI motility of methanolic extract as well as different organic solvent soluble fractions of bark of Annona reticulata Linn. The powdered bark of the plant was extracted with methanol using cold extraction method and fractionated with solvent-solvent partitioning using organic solvents including n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, diterpenes, carbohydrate, saponins, phenols, tannins and glycosides. The different organic solvent soluble fractions of bark were evaluated at a concentration of 200 mg/kgbw in castor oil induced diarrheal mice model. The aqueous soluble fractions of bark Annona reticulata showed highest percentage of inhibition of diarrhea (64.91 ± 1.37%), whereas methanol, n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed 26.99 ± 1.79%, 34.85 ± 1.66%, 52.71 ± 1.42% and 45.45 ± 1.54% of diarrheal inhibition, respectively. At the same time, the reference standard Loperamide (5 mg/kg) exhibited 73.21 ± 2.06% inhibition of diarrhea. In GI motility test by charcoal plug method, the 200 mg/kgbw of aqueous soluble fraction showed highest antimotility activity (68.71 ± 3.98%), whereas methanol, n-hexane, chloroform               and ethyl acetate soluble fractions showed 66.84 ± 3.38%, 52.01 ± 1.25%, 59.75 ± 3.56%                       and 54.70 ± 2.12% antimotility activity, respectively. The standard Loperamide (5 mg/kg) revealed 72.41 ± 1.33% inhibition of GI motility, whereas distilled water as control demonstrated 34.06 ± 1.09% of inhibition. This result  indicates that the plant extracts have a  significant inhibition of GI motility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Digital and Palmar Dermatoglyphic Patterns of Medical Students of Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State Nigeria

T. K. Adenowo, B. J. Dare

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i330083

Dermatoglyphic traits are genetically determined and most importantly remain constant before birth until death. These traits reflect prenatal developmental stability. Dermatoglyphic features of medical students of Bingham University, Nigeria who are to proceed into clinical classes were studied to know the patterns of dermatoglyphic distributions among the male and female medical students. A total number of Sixty Two (62) medical students comprising twenty seven (27) male and thirty five (35) female students were employed for this study. Finger and palm prints were obtained according to the methods of Cummins using ink. The printink was uniformly smeared on the palmer and finger surfaces to obtain complete print of the finger tips and the palmer surfaces. Dermatoglyphic parameters were analysed with the aid of magnifying lens (X 20), the finger ridge counts (FRC), total finger ridge counts (TFRC), absolute finger ridge counts (AFRC) in male students were significantly higher than in female medical students. However, insignificant differences were noticed in palmer tri-radial angles measured (<ATD, <DAT, <ADT) and other palmer parameters such as a-b ridge counts, a-b distances and the degrees of transversality of the palmer ridges were relatively the same as shown by the main line index. Ulnar loop patterns followed by whorl patterns were found to be dominantly distributed in both male and female medical students, however, ulnar loops and spiral whorls were more prevalent (P<0.05) in male compared with female medical students. Arches were noticed to be distributed more in percentage among the female students. Therefore, in this cross-sectional descriptive study, dermatoglyphic features of presumably normal male and female individuals were found to be of great importance in basic data documentation especially in this part of the Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Drug Abuse among Adolescents in Lokoja Metropolis of Kogi State, Nigeria

Oche Joseph Otorkpa

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i330084

Background: Adolescence is characterized by thrill-seeking and looking for new experiences which are often accompanied with experimentation with substance use and testing boundaries with its attendant consequences.

Aim: The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the prevalence levels, pattern and types of abused substances in Lokoja metropolis and provide valuable information for stakeholders.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study carried out among adolescents In Lokoja Metropolis of Kogi State, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria from June to September 2018.

Methodology: A questionnaire-based study using a simple random sampling method to select respondents.

Results: A total of one hundred and sixty four questionnaires were administered after assent from the respondents and signed consent from parents or guardians. The respondents who were made up of  90 males and 74 females, 44 respondents fell between the age category of 10-13, 38 and 82 respondents fell within the categories of 14-16 and 17- 19 respectively. Of these respondents, 5 were educated to primary school level, 129 to secondary level, 27 of them to tertiary level and 3 of them had no formal education at all. The use of illicit drugs appeared to be increasing with age, for male respondent, 6.9% for ages 10-13, 14.2% for ages 14-16 and 32.5% for ages 17 to 19, among the female respondents same pattern was observed 0%, 11.76% and 11.9 % respectively for the same age categories. Furthermore, the use of illicit drug was more prevalent in males than in females, the prevalence rate for males was 20% and 9.46% in females. Overall, peer pressure was found to have the most influence among adolescents who use illicit substances and marijuana was found to be the most abused drug by adolescents in the metropolis, 46.67% in males, and 32.43% in females. However, the rate of abuse of codeine and non-codeine based cough syrups among females was also found to be higher and almost at par with marijuana 31.08%. Although there was a significant statistical relationship between age and drug abuse in males with a p-value of 0.024151 at p < 0.05, the relationship was not significant among females.

Conclusion: The abuse of marijuana being the most abused drug by adolescents in the metropolis, 46.67% in males, and 32.43% in females in addition to the abuse of new substances especially the high rate of codeine and non-codeine based cough syrups among females is an important finding with far reaching public health consequences. There is the need for increased awareness on the harmful physical, mental and social effects of substance abuse and stricter enforcement of drug laws and regulations to protect adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flora Diversity and Distribution in Falgore Game Reserve, Kano State, Nigeria

J. I. Amonum, E. T. Ikyaagba, S. A. Dawaki

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i330085

The diversity and distribution of tropical vegetation becomes more important in the face of the ever increasing threats to the tropical ecosystems. This study was carried out to examine the variations in composition and diversity characteristics of the flora species of Falgore Game Reserve in Kano State, Nigeria, with a view to promoting sustainable conservation and management of the game reserve. The study area was stratified into four topographic locations, namely: hill top, sloppy area, level ground and the riparian forest. A one kilometer line transect perpendicular to a baseline (an established tract/road) was laid in each of the four study locations. 50m × 50m sampling plots were systematically established at a predetermined interval of 200m on both sides of the transect; given a total of ten sampling plots in each study site, and a total of forty (40) plots for the study. The 50m× 50m sampling plots were used for the assessment of woody plants species (trees, saplings and shrubs). One meter squarewas used for the assessment of the herbaceous layer (Herbs and Grasses). Plant Species diversity and distribution were estimated using species richness (D), species diversity (H′) and species evenness (E). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at p< 0.05. A total of 3,231.2 individuals/ha distributed in 23 families, 44 genera and 53 species were recorded in the study. Thirty six (36) species (67.9%) were trees, 7 species (13.2%) were shrubs, and 10 species (18.8%) were saplings while 10 species (18%) were herbs. The highest tree species diversity (H′= 2.5) was recorded at the level ground while the least was recorded at the sloppy area, (H1= 2.1). The highest diversity for Shrubs (H1= 1.23) was recorded at the sloppy area while the least (H1 = 0.09) was recorded at the level ground. The highest species diversity of Saplings, (H′= 1.92) was recorded at the level ground while the least (H′ = 1.12) was recorded in the riparian forest. The highest mean value for tree height (14.8m) was recorded at riparian forest while the lowest (10.5m) was recorded at hill top. Findings of this study showed that land use types in association with environmental factors have substantial influences on the density and morphological characteristics of plant species in Falgore Game Reserve.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Some Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Albino Rats Pre-Treated and Post-Treated with Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium Extracts

Ibifiri Bristol, Ebirien-Agana Samuel Bartimaeus, Holy Brown

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i330087

The use of herbs in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications have been reported. This study was thus aimed at determining the levels of some biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats pre-treated and post-treated with Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium extracts. Fifty (50) albino rats weighing between 150 – 250 g were used for this study. 25 albino rats were used for each phase of the treatment. The pre-treatment phase involved the treatment of the rats with 400 mg/kg b.w (singly) and 200 mg/kg b.w (combined) extracts for 14 days, after which diabetes mellitus was induced using streptozotocin before the rats were sacrificed. The post-treatment phase involved the inducement of diabetes with streptozotocin after which the rats were treated with 400 mg/kg b.w (singly) and 200 mg/kg b.w (combined) extracts for 28 days before the animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture and plasma/serum was collected. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined using standard procedures while glucose was measured with a glucometer. Cardiovascular risk ratios such as Castelli risk ratio I and II and atherogenic index of plasma were also calculated. Results showed that extracts of V. amygdalina (only), G. latifolium (only) and V.A+ GL (combined)significantly (p<0.05) reduced the TC, LDL-C , FBS, MDA and TAC levels while HDL-C level significantly (p<0.05) increased. The cardiac risk indices (CRI-I and CRI-II, and Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in both the pre-treated and post-treated rats were also reduced when compared to diabetic control. It is thus evident that these plants’ extracts possess hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic, and antioxidant properties and thus could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks. Therefore, the tradomedicinal use of these plants in the management of cardiovascular complications is highly recommended.