Open Access Original Research Article

Anatomical Assessment of the Eye of the African Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus)

Iheanyi Kemdirim Peter-Ajuzıe, Innocent Chima Nwaogu, Udensi Maduabuchi Igwebuike

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i230077

Purpose: To determine the macroscopic and microscopic ocular morphological characteristics of the African grass-cutter

Materials and Methods: Ten male grasscutters of mean age 4.05 ± 1.44 months and mean weight 1.04 ± 0.56 kg were used for this study. Gross morphologic and light microscopic techniques were employed in the study of the eyes.

Results: Grossly, the eye exhibited typical characteristics of the mammalian eye with a mean eye weight and mean corneal diameter of 0.47 ± 0.14 g and 0.73 ± 0.07 cm, respectively. The horizontal corneal diameter was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the vertical corneal diameter, and the ratio of mean corneal diameter to mean eye diameter (MCD:MED) was 0.80. The sclera and corneal stroma were dense fibrous connective tissues and had thicknesses of 105.3 ± 25.8 µm and 201.4 ± 91.3µm, respectively, while the corneal epithelium was stratified squamous epithelium and measured 50.1 ± 15.1µm. The choroid, ciliary stroma, and iridal stroma were pigmented connective tissues, while the retina was a multi-layered neuro-epithelial tissue with scanty ganglion cells and a retinal pigment epithelium that was pigmented throughout its length.

Conclusion: The high MCD:MED and scanty retinal ganglion cells observed are associated with nocturnal visual capability. However, the complete pigmentation of the retinal pigment epitheliumsuggest the absence of tapetum lucidum in this species. This could considerably lower its nocturnal visual capability and indicate a low reliance on vision for environmental perception. The biometrical measurements obtained have made data available for use in future ocular studies of the rodent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maize and Weed Response to Legume Cover Short Fallow and Fertilizer in Port Harcourt South Eastern Nigeria

E. N. Nzeako, U. E. Udensi, S. Omovbude, J. A. Orluchukwu

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i230078

Field experiment was conducted in Faculty of Agriculture Teaching and Research Farm University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, South Eastern Region of Nigeria between March and September 2017; to evaluate the effect of planted short fallow legume cover crop on maize performance and weed growth. The experimental design was a 5 x 2 factorial in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a plot size of 4 m x 4 m with four replicates. The treatments consisted of four different legumes cover species fallow and a natural fallow as follows: Mucuna [Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC var. utilis), Lablab (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet), Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill spp)], Centrosema (Centrosema pascuorum (L.) and a natural fallow (No Legume Cover) and two levels of inorganic fertilizer as NPK 15: 15: 15 (0 and 15 Kg ha-1 NPK). All legume cover growth characteristics were negatively correlated with weed cover and weed dry weight (r = -0.58 and r = -0.59 at P=0.0001). Legume dry weight had a positive correlation with all maize parameter (r =0.64 at P=0.0001) except for stem diameter (r = -0.43 at P=0.0051). Similarly, all weed attributes were negatively correlated to maize parameters. Maize height was better in plots that received short fallow legumes than natural fallow. There was increase in soil Nitrogen level after 10 weeks of fallow. Legume cover crop short fallow has the potentials for weed suppression, soil fertility and productivity improvement in maize culture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic and Haematological Effects of Chrysophyllum albidum Supplemented Diet on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

H. O. Ibrahim, O. Osilesi, O. O. Adebawo, F. D. Onajobi, K. O. Karigidi, L. B. Muhammad

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i230079

Background: The use of food in the management of diseases is an established art of science. It is essentially important in the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus where cure is not certain.

Objective: This study investigated the anti-diabetic and heamatological effects of Chrysophyllum albidum fruit-skin (CAFS) supplemented diet on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) and 70g/kg CAFS supplemented diet was used on STZ-induced diabetic rats to test its antidiabetic efficacy with some biochemical parameters and histological evaluation of liver and pancreatic tissues for a treatment period of twenty-eight days.

Results: The diabetic untreated rats exhibited hyperglycaemia accompanied with increases in glycosylated haemoglobin, plasma and liver lipid profile except high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and white blood cell count while decreasing the body weight, insulin, hepatic glycogen and red blood cell levels. CAFS was significantly (p<0.05) effective in inhibiting hyperglycemia by 68%, decreased glycosylated haemoglobin by 20%, plasma and liver lipid profile except HDL-c and white blood cell count but increased the body weight by 17%, insulin, hepatic glycogen and  red blood cell levels in comparison with diabetic untreated group. The results were comparable to glibenclamide (standard-drug). Histopathological studies on liver and pancreas of CAFS-treated rats showed regenerative effects.

Conclusion: This study has indicated that CAFS possesses antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and ameliorative effect on diabetic induced abnormalities in haematological parameters, β-cell and liver tissue. The findings suggest that CAFS may be used as therapeutic adjunct in the management of diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria in Pregnancy in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria

E. J. Onochie, A. O. Egwunyenga

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i230080

The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malaria in pregnant women in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria during the period of March to August, 2014. A total of two hundred and seven pregnant women were examined, 60% were infected with malaria parasite. With respect to age, pregnant women within the age of 18-25 years had the higher prevalence rate of 67.8%. Prevalence rate of 63.5% were observed within pregnant women in their first trimester. Pregnant women who are farmers tend to have the highest prevalence rate of 71.4% while those who lived in rural areas showed prevalence rate of 69.1%. Primigravidae showed the higher prevalence rate of 68.9%. Of the two locations sampled Abraka had the highest overall prevalence in terms of malaria infection with 64% while Eku showed a prevalence rate of 56%. Based on the findings, there is clear evidence of high level of malaria in pregnant women in the study area, hence the need to reduce the morbidity of malaria in pregnancy in Delta State. Efforts should be made to scale-up intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp) for malaria with Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine (SP), and ensure increased access to IPTp with SP in all areas in Delta State. Free bed nets should also be provided to pregnant women on their first antenatal visit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Pleurotus sapidus 969 Cultivated on Agave sisalana Saline Solid Waste

Mutemi Muthangya, Mzee J. Amana, Suhaila O. Hashim, Anthony M. Mshandete, Amelia K. Kivaisi

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i230081

Effects of pure and mixed substrates of sisal waste, grass (Panicum coloratum) and a combination of the two substrates at 50:50 (w/w) on nutritional composition, minerals and antioxidant potential of sun-dried Pleurotus sapidus 969 were investigated in the present study. To determine the proximate chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the samples, standard analytical procedures were employed. Moisture content, crude protein and crude fibre ranged between 11.09-12.80%, 6.4-6.6% and 18.3-30.5%, respectively. Macro elements Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P were also found in substantial amounts with K being present in an exceedingly higher amount (541.3-657.1 mg/100g) than the other macro minerals. The samples from the three substrates contained antioxidant β-carotene (4.6-6.0 mg/100g), lycopene (4.9-5.1mg/100g), Vitamin C (5.2-5.6 mg/100g), phenols (361.0-859.0 mg of GA/g) and flavanoids (33.5-64.0 mg RE/g).Mushroom harvested from mixed substrates contained better nutritional qualities than the pure substrate, although the phenolic content in mushrooms cultivated on sisal substrate was higher. The results further showed that, all the extracts exhibited scavenging ability and metal chelating activity. The findings showed that Pleurotus sapidus 969 is rich in nutrients, macro minerals as well as natural antioxidant which could be explored for pharmaceutical applications.