Open Access Original Research Article

Visceral Leishmaniasis Infection in Patients from Gboko Health Division, Benue State, Nigeria

J. B. Orpin, I. Mzungu, H. Usman-Sani

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i130071

A Study was carried out to investigate the Prevalence of Visceral leishmaniasis infection in Gboko Health Division, Benue State. Parasitological screening was carried out in Two hundred (200) patients comprising 74 males and 126 females sampled at random. Leucoconcentration method was used in the diagnosis of Visceral leishmaniasis in the patients in the study area. Out of the total number sampled, 26 tested positive 9 (12.2%) males and 17 (13.5%) females for Visceral Leishmaniasis infection. Infection rate of Visceral leishmaniasis showed significant difference (p<0.05) based on the sex and age of the patients with the females having higher infection than the males, X2 cal=12.59 at P≤ 0.05 and 6df. Infection rate was significantly higher in female patients with 25.0% in the age groups of 51-60 and 60˃ years respectively and 14.3% for males in the age group 31-40 years. No prevalence was recorded in males and females in the age group of 1-10 years. The presence of Visceral leishmaniasis in the study area is of clinical importance and requires routine check and public health awareness and further research conducted in the study area to help bring about complete eradication.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Induced Haemorrhage on Thermoregulation, Blood Constituents and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Khalid A. O. Sukar; Abdalla M. Abdelatif; Ahmed O. Alameen

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i130072

Background and Objectives: Haemorrhage is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity of mother and foetus. Pregnancy is associated with changes which may influence responses to bleeding. This study was designed to examine the influence of controlled haemorrhage and compare thermoregulation and haematological and biochemical parameters in pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits.

Materials and Methods: Twelve pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits, 6 in each group, were used in the studies. Both groups of animals were subjected to 20% haemorrhage of total blood volume on gestation day 21. The rectal temperature (Tr), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) were monitored for 2 days following bleeding. Blood samples were collected at 24 hrs before induction of bleeding and then after bleeding at 30 min, 24 hrs and 48 hrs. The samples were used for measurements of haematological parameters; coagulation profile, arterial blood gases and serum electrolytes.

Results: The general trend indicates lower Tr values in pregnant rabbits at 30 min post-haemorrhage. The values of RR and HR were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher in pregnant and nonpregnant animals at 24 hrs post-haemorrhage. The pregnant rabbits showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in platelets count at 24 hrs post-haemorrhage compared to the nonpregnant values. In pregnant rabbits, haemorrhage was associated with significant increase in PT. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was significantly (P≤ 0.01) prolonged at 24 hrs post-haemorrhage in pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) in pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits was significantly (P≤ 0.01) increased at 24hrs and 48 hrs post-haemorrhage. The partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) decreased significantly (P≤0.01) at 30 min post-haemorrhage in pregnant rabbits. There was a slight increase in Na and Ca levels in pregnant rabbits’ post-haemorrhage. Haemorrhage in rabbits was associated with significant decreases in plasma osmolality in pregnant rabbits.

Conclusion: Pregnancy induces modifications in some physiological responses to haemorrhage. The information generated could be used in monitoring maternal health during pregnancy and risks of changes associated with haemorrhage in mammals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Quality Assessment of Zobo Drink Sold in Bayelsa State Nigeria

Daw Mercy Omeremu, Amala Smart Enoch, Obioma Azuonwu

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i130073

Introduction: Zobo is a non-alcoholic locally produced beverage from dried petals, acid-succulent calyxes of Hibiscus subdariffa by boiling and filtration. Zobo is rich in carbohydrates, proteins, calcium, vitamins, minerals, iron and antioxidant. The consumption of zobo may be associated with food infection and/ or food borne illness arising from unhygienic processes.

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the bacterial quality of zobo sold in Bayelsa, identify the bacteria isolated and determine the enterotoxin producing ability of some strains.

Materials and Methods: A total of 150 bottles of zobo were examined, 50 were purchased from each zone (Yenagoa, Sagbama and Ogbia). Each bottle of zobo was well mixed by gentle inversion and 1mL of the zobo was added to 9mL of sterile peptone water in a test tube.  Serial dilution was made to  and 0.1 mL of the last dilution (105) was inoculated on already prepared and dried media (nutrient, MacConkey and salmonella/shegella agar) in duplicate and spread evenly with sterile glass rod. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours and examined for growth. Commercial purchased kits were used to test for enterotoxin production of some isolated strains.

Results: Out of the 150 zobo samples examined, the bacteria isolated were S. aureus 120 (25%), Coagulase negative Staphylococci sp.120 (25%), Bacillus sp. 150 (31.3%) and Salmonella sp. 90 (18%) respectively. Out of 120 S. aureus isolated, 18 (15%) produced enterotoxin.

Conclusion: Regulatory Agencies should as a matter of urgency consider the regulation of zobo production for public consumption and producers should be instructed on the principles of food preservation, sanitation and hygiene. The consumption of locally produced zobo is a public health concern in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) “With Mother” on Progesterone, Testosterone and Estrogen of Wistar Rats

Okoye Ngozi Franca, Ekpudjureni Oghenevware

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i130074

Aim: Apple cider vinegar (ACV) with mother" has been singled out as an especially helpful health remedy. This present research evaluated the effect of ACV ‘with mother’ on hormones (testosterone, estrogen and progesterone) of Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: Eighteen rats with average weight range of 120 g were grouped into six groups. Three groups served as the control for each week (week 1, 2 and 3) while the remaining three groups were treated with 1 ml of ACV twice daily. The animals were treated for a total of 21 days. After each week the animals in that group were sacrificed and laboratory analyses were performed.

Results: After oral administration of the product, the results revealed significant reductions in a time dependent manner with the highest reductions obtained on the last week of experiment. The result obtained for estrogen showed significant reduction (p<0.05) in week one with test value (7.74±0.19 mlU/ml) as compared to control (8.36±0.01 mlU/ml).For progesterone, there was an increase (p<0.05). The highest test value was obtained in week 3, (3.64±0.08 mlU/ml) as compared to control value (3.15±0.01 mlU/ml). However, there was also a reduction in testosterone level.

Conclusion: In conclusion, ACV reduces the levels of estrogen and testosterone but increased progesterone level of Wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on Some Reproductive Indices of Male Albino Rats

P. B. Ekpo, N. E. Edu, A. J. Umoyen, T. L. Thomas, S. O. Abraham

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v20i130076

Background: Medicinal plants have been a good source of drugs for humans, but chronic and prolong use of medicinal plants like Phyllanthus amarus for the treatment of malaria and other disorders are issues of concerns. This study evaluated the effect of Phyllanthus amarus on reproductive organs and sperm parameters in albino rats.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-four healthy male albino rats of 12 weeks old were assigned into four groups with six rats in each group using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The experimental animals were orally treated with Phyllanthus amarus. Group A served as the control and was given only water and feed; Group B, C and D  received 100 mg/kgBW, 200 mg/kgBW and 300 mg/kgBW of Phyllanthus amarus respectively. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The treatments lasted for a period of 65 days after two weeks of acclimatization.

Results: The results showed statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction in weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm count and sperm head abnormalities in male  rats treated with Phyllanthus amarus when compared to the control. The sperm pH was not significantly (p>0.05) affected by Phyllanthus amarus among the different treatment groups in the experimental animals.

Conclusion: Findings from the present study indicate that Phyllanthus amarus possesses a dose-dependent anti-fertility activity in amale albino rats under a sub-chronic course of administration.