Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of a Medicinal Soap Made from Zingiber officinale and Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oils

Jodie Valdese Mbouche, Fabrice Hervé Njike Ngamga, Eric Serge Ngangoum, Fabrice Tonfack Djikeng

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 39-45
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i530307

Aims: The objective of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial and sensory properties of a formulated medicinal soap.

Study Design:  Extraction of essential oils, purchase of vegetable oils and caustic soda, soap formulation, testing of its antibacterial and antifungal activities, evaluation of its acceptability.

Place and Duration of Study: Research unit of biochemistry of medicinal plant, food and nutritional sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang from October 2019 to July 2020.

Methodology: Cold saponification method was used for the production of soap using the following ingredients: Palm kernel oil, olive oil, coconut oil, Palm oleic, caustic soda, essential oils from ginger roots and cloves buds. The formulated soap was used for the evaluation of its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities as well as its acceptability using the 9-points hedonic scale. The soap was tested on the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Staphylococcus aureus 56, Staphylococcus aureus 18, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Candida albican, Candida tropicalis.

Results: Results showed that the produced soap has bactericidal activities against staphylococcus aureus 18 and staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and a bacteriostatic activity against staphylococcus aureus 56. Its activity against fungi was very low. The results of the sensory analysis of this product showed that it can be accepted by consumer since the lowest score was 6.55 in a scale of 9.

 Conclusion: Results showed that the produced soap has bactericidal activities against staphylococcus aureus 18 and staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and a bacteriostatic activity against staphylococcus aureus 56. It was accepted with a score of at least 6.55/9 by the participants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Limnological Processes and Water Level Variation on the Biodiversity of Brazilian Amazon Lakes: An Ecological Approach

Assad J. Darwich, Fabio Aprile

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i530303

This research makes a brief review of the limnology of lakes in wetlands in the Western Amazon, associating physical-chemical and morphological aspects to the biodiversity of black-waters lakes and whitewaters lakes. Lakes in these areas can show different patterns of vertical stratification, both in dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature. Furthermore, there are different mixing patterns. These events depend mainly on the way lakes connect to rivers, the time and extent of flooding, as well as the water levels variation. The availability of nutrients, particularly of phosphate, controls the biodiversity of the lakes and it is directly related with the thermal stratification and oxygen level in water column. In general, the most of the Amazon floodplain lakes can be classified as polymictic. Nevertheless, there are lakes of black-waters with trend to meromixy with permanent stratification. Under these conditions, stratification of other limnological variables also occurs, e.g., pH and electrical conductivity. Consequently, black-waters lakes systems with high species richness result in contrast to whitewaters lakes systems with lower species richness and high abundance of specimens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and Hepatoprotective Potential of Ethanolic Root Extract of Jatropha curcas in Acetaminophen-Induced Toxicity in Albino Wistar Rats

D. Felix, C. U. Ogunka-Nnoka, E. O. Wellington

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i530304

This study evaluated the phytochemical composition and hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic root extract of Jatropha curcas in acetaminophen-induced toxicity in wistar albino rats. The phytochemical screening and composition were determined using gas chromatography. Thirty albino rats weighing between 170 and 200 g were used, were separated into 5 groups. Group one was administered distilled water, 2 was administered 1000 mg/kg AC only, 3, 4 and 5 were administered 1000 mg/kg acetaminophen + 200 mg/kg extract, 1000 mg/kg acetaminophen + 400 mg/kg extract, 1000 mg/kg AC + 100 mg/kg Silymarin. Phytochemical composition of root of the plant showed saponin (55.7079 µg/g) lunamarine (34.3976 µg/g), kaempferol (32.7107 µg/g), rutin (20.7399 µg/g), sapogenin (11.2644 µg/g), phenol (4.1557 µg/g), anthocyanin (1.1946 µg/g), epicatechin (0.8303 µg/g) and catechin (0.1883 µg/g). The plasma ALP, AST, ALT and GGT activities of the negative control were 151.50±14.11 U/L, 48.00±7.19 U/L, 79.50 ± 2.14 U/L and 3.50± 0.45 U/L respectively. The plasma ALP, AST, ALT and GGT activities of group 3 were 78.50± 4.75 U/L, 23.00± 2.35 U/L, 49.00± 3.65 and 2.95 ± 0.17 U/L respectively, were significantly decreased when compared with the controls. The plasma total protein, albumin and total bilirubin levels of the negative control were 57.00± 0.86 g/l, 32.00 ± 0.86 g/l, 20.35 ± 0.83 µmol. The      plasma total protein, albumin and total bilirubin levels of group 3 were 61.50± 2.14 g/l, 33.00± 0.86 g/l 11.15 ± 0.98 µmol respectively and were significantly increased when compared the controls. The significant improvement observed on the liver markers is suggestive of the hepatoprotective properties of Jatropha curcas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Hours of Exposure to Cement on Haemostatic Parameters among Cement Workers

Jonathan Nyebuchi, Jeremiah Owubokiri Ngowari, Collins Ohwonigho Adjekuko, Adams Matthew Okur, Mieiwari Ibifubara Jumbo

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i530305

Inhaling cement dust has been linked to changes in the health integrity of vulnerable groups. This study was focused at evaluating the impact of hourly exposure to cement dust on haemostatic markers in cement workers in Port Harcourt. One hundred subjected working at cement depot and sites were recruited for the study and were divided into three study groups based on hours of exposure to cement dust during work. Group 1 was 27 subjects with 1-5hourly exposure, Group 2 was 62 subjects with 6-10hourly exposure and the last group was Group 3 containing 11 subjects with over 10hours of exposure. Subjects were selected by convenient sampling technique. Blood samples were drawn using venipuncture method and samples were collected into trisodium citrate and plain bottles for PT, APTT, fibrinogen and Von Willebrand factor and D-dimer respectively. PT and APTT were assayed using manual methods but other studied parameters were assayed using ELISA. ANOVA result showed that the mean values of PT level among the classes were 15.58 ±2.11; 16.29 ±4.07 and 16.17 ±2.07 and were not significantly different (p=0.6775). Mean values for APTT level among the classes were 35.09 ±10.06; 32.62 ±9.61 and 33.00 ±12.74 but not significantly different (p=0.5695). VWF level among the classes were 69.62 ±36.89; 64.23 ±31.32 and 71.92 ±16.17 but not significantly different (p=0.6396). D-Dimer level among the classes were 496.60 ±490.00; 457.60 ±409.80 and 519.20 ±357.70 but statistically non-significant (p=0.8661). Fibrinogen level among the classes were 4.74 ±4.63; 5.33 ±4.67 and 6.53 ±6.09 but statistically not significant (p=0.6604). There was no significant difference in haemostatic markers levels among the groups (P-value>0.05). This study has shown that hourly exposure to cement dust does not have any key effect on haemostatic markers of cement workers in Port Harcourt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemotherapeutic Propensity of Africa Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) Seed on Lipid Profile against Potassium Bromate-induced Cardiotoxicity

C. N. Ugwu, C. E. Iwuoha, N. M. Chika-Igwenyi, C. A. Onyeaghala, S. F. Orji, C. Igwenyi, C. L. Uche, O. I. N. Onyekachi, M. U. Nwobodo, I. O. Abali, A. I. Airaodion

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 29-38
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i530306

Background: Cardiovascular disease cases are on the increase despite many standard medical practices. Some disorders have been successfully treated by medicinal plants.

Aim: The current study was designed to assess the chemotherapeutic propensity of Parkia biglobosa against potassium bromate-induced cardiotoxicity.

Methodology: Using a soxhlet extractor with ethanol as the solvent, P. biglobosa was extracted. Twenty-four mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups A, B, C, and D after being acclimated in the lab. Oral distilled water was administered to Group A. Although groups C and D likewise received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of P. biglobosa, respectively, the animals in groups B, C, and D received 100 mg/kg body weight of potassium bromate (KBrO3). Rats received daily doses of freshly prepared potassium bromate and P. biglobosa extract by oral gavage. After receiving the therapy for 28 days, the animals were slaughtered 24 hours after the last treatment ended while being lightly sedated with diethyl ether. Through a heart puncture, blood was taken. Additionally, the animals' hearts were removed and homogenized. Standard techniques were used to measure the lipid profile parameters.

Results: When compared to the untreated group, the plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, and the CHD risk ratio were significantly higher in the study's animals treated with KBrO3, while HDL and the HDL/LDL ratio were significantly lower. Compared to the control group, administration of KBrO3 significantly decreased cardiac levels of total cholesterol, HDL and HDL/LDL ratio, while increasing levels of triglycerides, LDL, and VLDL, as well as the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk ratio. P. biglobosa attenuated these perturbations in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: Potassium bromate caused increase in the levels of triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and a reduction in HDL and HDL/LDL ratio and this effect was found to be attenuated by intake of P. biglobosa. This effect will result in the reduction of CHD risk factors induced by potassium bromate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Meat Quality of Noiler Chicken as Influenced by Dietary Natural Antioxidants Supplementations

A. O. Akinwumi, O. A. Oshodi, R. A. Atanda, O. M. Ogunsola, S. J. Ayoola, R. A. Ajani, B. D. Odeleye

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 46-62
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i5584

Some food spices and herbs with antioxidant properties have been identified as phyto-additives, of which roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), black pepper (Piper nigrum L), and green tea (Camellia sinesis) are important. This study aimed to assess the effect of natural antioxidants and its inclusion levels on performance and meat quality of Noiler chickens. A total of 270 one-day-old noiler chickens were distributed into nine groups, with 3 replicates of 10 birds per replicate. They were fed with basal diet (control 0 g/kg), basal diet + roselle, black pepper, green tea and combine (roselle + black pepper + green tea) at 0.5 g/kg and 1.0g /kg respectively. At the end of twelve (12) weeks, nine birds per treatments were sacrificed, scalded manually and dissected; blood samples were collected for heamatology and serum parameters. Data were also collected on carcass characteristics, primal cuts, internal organ, physical properties, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and organoleptic properties. Data generated were subjected to Analysis of variance using the General Linear Model for factorial within a completely randomized design. The natural antioxidants significantly (p<0.05) influence the carcass characteristics, primal cut and internal organs of the birds. Birds fed green tea had significantly (P<0.05) low cooking loss when compared with treatment groups. There was no significance difference (P>0.05) in WBC, RBC, Hb and Haematocrit of the experimental birds. The serum parameters were also not significantly influenced (P<0.05). The CHO of the birds fed control, roselle and black pepper were significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to birds in other treatments. The birds fed diets with green tea and roselle had significantly (P<0.05) low HDL and birds fed black pepper had reduced level of LDL and MDA when compared to other treatments. Chicken meat from roselle and combine fed chickens has the most accepted flavour with inclusion level at 1.0g/kg compare to other dietary treatment. Meat from all the dietary treatment was generally accepted by the taste panellist. It therefore, means that natural antioxidants most importantly black pepper inclusion in noiler chicken’s feed improved the carcass characteristics and had no deleterious effect and should be included in their feed at 1.0g/kg.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Clove (Feed and Water Grade) on Layers Performance and Egg Quality

A. O. Akinwumi, A. A. Odunsi, S. G. Ademola, Z. A. Akanni, R. O. Sulaimon, A. Ogunleye-Johnson, S. J. Ayoola, K. K. Arasi

Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, Page 63-73
DOI: 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i5594

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of clove (feed and water grade) on laying performance, egg quality and chemical composition. Two hundred and ten (210) point of lay (18 weeks old) of Isa brown commercial layer birds were randomly allotted after weigh balance into seven treatments of five replicates. Seven Dietary treatments (Diet 1,2,3,4,5,6,7) were established for control, 0.5, 1.0g/kg in feed, 0.5, 1.0g/liter of water, 0.25g/kg and 0.25g/litre, 0.5g/kg and 0.5g/litre of clove powder in feed and water respectively. Egg samples were stored at 4th, 6th and 8th week of the experiments and analyzed at the end of the experiment to have 4, 2 and 0 week(s) of storage. Proximate composition and lipid profile of eggs was chemically and statistically analyzed in a completely randomized design of a factorial arrangement. The results showed that the inclusion of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) increased performance of the layer birds in term of egg production at 0.5g (clove in their water) and 0.5g+0.5g (clove powder in their feed and water) respectively. The result also indicated that internal egg qualities were best at the combination of feed and water (0.5g+0.5g). The interaction effect of storage time and mode of administration of clove on the proximate composition of eggs laid by the birds was best at 0week and 4weeks storage duration. The storage time on lipid profile of eggs laid by birds fed with clove was observed to be best at 4 weeks due to the reduction of cholesterol. In conclusion, the addition of clove in feed and water at 0.5g+0.5g can be best recommended due to the increase in laying performance, egg quality. Also, the proximate composition and lipid profile of eggs stored was best at this level of inclusion.