Journal of Applied Life Sciences International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Applied Life Sciences International (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1103)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JALSI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘applied life sciences’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Applied Life Sciences International 2394-1103 Molecular Characterization and in-vitro Regeneration of Wild Ganoderma lucidum from Abuja, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To demonstrate the importance of molecular identification of <em>G. lucidum</em> basidiomata, used as nutraceutics, in Abuja - Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Molecular characterization via comparative genomics and vitro regeneration of selected specimens of local <em>G. lucidum</em> from Abuja, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration:</strong> Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna Nigeria and Biotechnology Advanced Research Center, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja between February 2018 to June 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Genomic DNAs of twelve (12) selected specimens were isolate in good quantities and qualities that were amenable to sharp and distinct PCR amplifications and Sanger’s sequence analyses. The molecular identification was performed using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequences amplified from the samples to run similarity search with reference database sequences in the gene bank. <em>In-vitro </em>regeneration of the samples using tissue culture techniques in the laboratory was carried out following optimization of the surface sterilization, regeneration of pure mycelia and pure spawn formation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Nucleotide sequence data mining of the national centre for biotechnology information (NCBI) with the query sequences using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) showed that 25% of the samples are not <em>G. lucidum</em>. This implies a significant difference between the morphological and molecular identification at (n-1) degree of freedom with (p= .01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The molecular identification and <em>in-vitro</em> regeneration of local <em>G. lucidum</em> is indeed a necessity for proper and effective utilization of the mushroom because there is a significant potential margin of error in the use of morphological characteristics for <em>G. lucidum </em>identification as observed through this molecular analysis.</p> A. A. Haroun C. E. Osuji A. I. Alhaji A. Ajibade K. Onuh G. A. Etuk- Udo V. A. Etim P. C. Onyenekwe M. S. Abdulsalam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 1 11 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1230198 Influence of Body Condition Score on Milk Production Parameters of Murrah Buffaloes <p>The postpartum changes in Body Condition Score (BCS) studied from calving to four months of lactation in 40 Murrah buffaloes showed that BCS decreased from calving to two months of lactation and then gradually increased. Significant (P &lt; 0.05) inverse relationship (r = -0.96) was observed between BCS and milk yield. The effect of BCS at calving (BCSc) on the milk production parameters were studied in 40 Murrah buffaloes divided into 4 groups of 10 buffaloes each based on BCSc (G1 – 2.5 to 2.99, G2- 3.0 to 3.49, G3- 3.5to 3.99 and G4- 4.0 to4.49). The total milk production (kg) upto 4 months of lactation, peak milk yield (kg), persistence, milk fat per cent, milk protein per cent and SNF per cent were 1030.93, 9.50, 1.65, 6.44, 3.39 and 8.99, respectively for G1 group, 1197.12, 11.60, 1.69, 7.54, 3.74 and 9.34 respectively for G2 group, 1658.67,16.50,1.77,8.62, 4.24 and 9.84, respectively for G3 and 1359.92, 13.75, 1.68, 9.37, 3.97 and 9.57, respectively for G4 group. Buffaloes of G3 group had significantly (p&lt;0.01) more milk yield, peak milk yield, milk protein and SNF compared to the other groups where as buffaloes of G4 group had significantly (P&lt;0.01) more milk fat.</p> Anitha Alapati Sarjan Rao Kapa Suresh Jeepalyam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-18 2020-12-18 12 17 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1230200 Attitudes about and Perpetration of Violence against Women among Turkish Men <p>This study was conducted to determine the attitudes of men regarding violence against women. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Research data were collected using a Men’s Information Form and a Scale of Attitude towards Violence against Women.</p> <p>The mean age of the participating men was 39.54 ± 13.55 years. The men’s general mean score for attitude regarding violence was 52.02 ± 10.81, which showed that such attitudes had a patriarchal tendency. In the univariate analyses, there was a significant difference between age group, education status, place of residence, situations of domestic violence and violent behaviour against mothers or wives, years of marriage and wife’s education status and the scores of the Scale of Attitudes towards Violence against Women (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p>Based on our findings, it is suggested that socioeconomic factors such as witnessing and experiencing violence in childhood, female unemployment, low education level, unemployment and poverty, and place of residence affect and increase violence against women.</p> Nursen Bolsoy Selma Sen Seval Cambaz Ulas Aynur Çetinkaya Dilek Özmen Beyhan Cengiz Özyurt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 18 30 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1230201 Vasorelaxant Effect Induced by the Essential Oil of Ocotea duckei Vattimo Leaves and Its Main Constituent, Trans-caryophyllene, in Rat Mesenteric Artery <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To evaluate the vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of the leaves of <em>O. duckei </em>Vattimo (ODEO) and its main constituent, trans-caryophyllene, in rat superior mesenteric arteries.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Isolated rat superior mesenteric rings were suspended by cotton threads for isometric tension recordings in Tyrode’s solution at 37ºC, gassed with 95% O<sub>2</sub> and 5% CO<sub>2</sub> and different ODEO concentrations (0.1-300 μg/mL) or trans-caryophyllene (1-1000 μg/mL) were added cumulatively to the organ baths.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of <em>Ocotea duckei</em> leaves (ODEO) and its main constituent, trans-caryophyllene (60.54 %), was evaluated in this work. In intact isolated rat superior mesenteric rings ODEO (0.1-300 μg/mL, n=6) induced concentration-dependent relaxation of tonus induced by phenylephrine (10 µM) or K<sup>+</sup>-depolarizing solution (KCl 80 mM) (IC<sub>50</sub>=31±5, 5±0.4 µg/mL, respectively, n=6). The relaxations of phenylephrine-induced contractions were not significantly attenuated after removal of the vascular endothelium (IC<sub>50</sub>=25±5 µg/mL). ODEO antagonized the concentration-response curves to CaCl<sub>2</sub> (10<sup>-6</sup>-3x10<sup>-2</sup> M) and Bay K 8644 (10<sup>-10</sup>-3x10<sup>-6</sup> M). Furthermore, in nominally without calcium solution, ODEO significantly inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, transient contractions induced by 10 µM phenylephrine or 20 µM caffeine. Trans-caryophyllene induced vasorelaxations, however, this effect was 18.6 times less potent when compared to ODEO-induced vasorelaxations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The relaxant effect induced by ODEO in rat superior mesenteric artery rings is endothelium-independent and seems to be related to both, inhibition of Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx through L-type voltage-gated Ca<sup>2+</sup>-channels sensitive to dihydropyridines and inhibition of the calcium release from intracellular IP<sub>3</sub>-and caffeine-sensitive stores.</p> Renildo Moura da Cunha Tays Amanda Felisberto Gonçalves Anselmo Fortunato Ruiz Rodriguez Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti Marcio Roberto Viana Santos José Maria Barbosa- Filho Êurica Adélia Nogueira Ribeiro Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do Egito Isac Almeida de Medeiros ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-26 2020-12-26 31 39 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1230202 A New Recongnition System Based on Gabor Wavelet Transform for Shockable Electrocardiograms <p><span class="fontstyle0">This paper presents a new recognition system for shockable arrhythmias for patients suffering&nbsp;from sudden cardiac arrest. In order to develop the recognition system, lots of electrocardiogram&nbsp;(ECGs) have been analyzed by using gabor wavelet transform (GWT). Although, there is a huge&nbsp;number of spectrum feature parameters, recognition performance for all combinations for spectrum&nbsp;feature parameters are evaluated, and on the basis of the evaluation results, useful and effective&nbsp;spectrum features for ECGs are extracted. As a result, the proposed recognition system based&nbsp;on the selected effective spectrum feature parameters can achieved good performance comparing&nbsp;with the existing results.</span> </p> Takayuki Okai Shonosuke Akimoto Hidetoshi Oya Kazushi Nakano Hiroshi Miyauchi Yoshikatsu Hoshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 40 51 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1230203 Bacteria Screening with Sufficient Nitrate Extraction from Wastewater <p>Search for effective biological strain for use to remedy water pollution has been limited. This study was performed to search for effective bacteria capable of extracting nitrate from wastewater. Samples from abattoir inside (Abi) and abattoir outside (Abt), fishpond of kwalkwalawa (Fpk) and mabera fishpond (Fpm) wastewater were used. Using conventional standard plate technique as 1.96×10<sup>7 </sup>cfu/ml (Abi) had highest bacteria count while 1.05×10<sup>7 </sup>cfu/ml (Fpk) had minimal. The obtained pure colonies were morphologically and biochemically characterized including two <em>Enterobacter</em> specie, <em>Proteus </em>and <em>Pseudomonas</em> specie. The isolated organisms were used as a test organism for the removal of nitrate present in high nitrate containing medium. Prior to the extraction, the wastewater samples were physicochemically analyzed using parameters like color, odor, pH, alkalinity, hardness, temperature and nitrate. For nitrate extraction, bacteria were inoculated in a separate tubes containing nitrate broth, incubated in a rotary shaker 150rpm at 37°C for 16hrs. The supernatant from 10minutes centrifuged culture were used for nitrate removal evaluation after a series of reaction and stop using spectrophotometer at 420nm. The absorbance 0.732 <em>proteus</em> specie after estimation of nitrate in a medium was maximal while <em>Enterobacter</em> specie 0.574 was minimal. Meanwhile, two of the <em>Enterobacter</em> specie has similar absorbance 0.012 while <em>Proteus</em> and <em>Pseudomonas</em> species had 0.016 and 0.010 respectively in the nitrate concentration removed within the media. The nitrate present in the medium was compared with a known standard curve prepared with NaNO<sub>3</sub> at 100-1000 ppm. The result indicated that bacteria from fish pond wastewaters had highest potential for extracting nitrate and that inherent bacteria are capable of removing pollutant nitrate and the bacteria may be able to remove nitrate efficiently if genetically engineered.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> A. Y. Bello A. Nafi’u Z. A. Haruna A. H. Ridwan A. Mohammed M. T. Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 52 58 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1230204 Influence of Simulated Defoliation and N Fertilization on Compensatory Growth of Gmelina arborea Seedlings <p>To investigate the effect of artificial defoliation and N availability on growth of <em>Gmelina arborea</em>, seedlings were subjected to three artificial defoliation levels (0, 25, 50%) and four N regimes (unfertilized, 1 g N plant<sup>-1</sup>, 3 g N plant<sup>-1</sup>, 6 g N plant<sup>-1</sup>) in a field trial. The results showed that height increment was 24.09% lower in the 50% defoliation than the undefoliated and 25% defoliation treatments which were not significantly different from each other. On average, the 25% and 50% defoliation treatments reduced stem volume increment by 44.34%. Increments of diameter and biomass and leaf production were not reduced by defoliation. In terms of response to N, increments in height and stem volume rose from 8.98 cm and 8.23 mm at unfertilized&nbsp; to 11.39 cm and 12.13 mm at 3 g N plant<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, while number of new leaves increased by a margin of 1.51 from unfertilized to&nbsp; 6 g N plant<sup>-1</sup>. Total biomass increment that was unaffected by defoliation showed an increasing trend from 0.55 g at unfertilized and 1 g N to 0.83 g at 3 g N and 0.94 g at 6 g N plant<sup>-1</sup>. There was no significant interactive effect of treatments on any parameter, suggesting that the adverse effect of defoliation on growth of <em>G. arborea</em> seedlings may not be alleviated by N fertilization. It is encouraged that a similar study be conducted for a longer duration to ascertain if the responses are sustained or modified.</p> Titus Fondo Ambebe Anjah Grace Mendi Abubakar Ali Shidiki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 59 66 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1230205 Ameliorative Effects of Dietary Ocimum gratissimum Leafmeal on African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus Subjected to Pathogenic and Transportation-Induced Stress <p>The primary aim of this project is the use of functional feed supplements to ameliorate or reduce the effects of stressors rather than using chemicals that could be harmful and expensive. <em>&nbsp;</em>Specifically<em>, </em>assessment of the ameliorative effect of locally available phytogenic product, <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> on the negative effects of stress in African catfish production was carried out in a study that lasted for 70 days. Five experimental diets were formulated, at different inclusion levels of <em>O. gratissimum</em> <em>, </em>as 0.00 g (control), 0.05 g, 0.10 g, 0.15 g, 0.20 g per 100 g of diet denoted as T1 (control), T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, stress-induced treatments of experimental fish were done using pathogenic and transportation stressors. Zootechnical parameters in terms of growth and nutrient utilization were evaluated. Physiological stress assessment (Aspartate transaminase, AST and Alanine transaminase, ALT) and stress biomarkers (cortisol and glucose) were carried out using liver and blood samples from experimental fish. Results showed that zootechnical parameters were significantly (P &lt; 0.05) enhanced with increasing supplementation levels of <em>O. gratissimum. </em>There were better performances in the growth and nutrient utilization indices like weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency and feed conversion ratio as the level of <em>O. gratissimum</em> was increased to 0.15 mg/g in the diets. Curvilinear trends were recorded with a second degree polynomial regression model depicting a strong relationship between SGR and <em>O. gratissimum </em>supplementation in fish diet followed by adverse responses when increased to 0.20 mg/g in the diet. There were significant reduction in stress parameters with increasing supplementation levels of <em>O. gratissimum </em>leaf extract in the diets. The best supplementation level of <em>O. gratissimum </em>was 0.15 mg/g in T4. From the above deductions, this study confirmed the positive ameliorating effects of <em>O. gratissimum</em> on the African catfish during stressful episodes.</p> Olanipekun O. Samuel K. Gbadamosi Oluyemi Adegbenro Muyiwa A. I. Agbona S. L. Adebisi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 67 75 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1230206 Screening of Locally Isolated Penicillium Species from the Soil for Amylase Production <p><strong>Background:</strong> A number of microorganisms are capable of degrading amylase and only a few of these microorganisms produce significant quantities of enzymes capable of completely hydrolyzing the amylase. Fungi are the main amylase-producing microorganisms.</p> <p><strong>Aims</strong><strong>:</strong> The present study targeted to screen <em>Penicillium</em> species isolated locally from soil for amylase production.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>In this research, fungal species belonging to genera penicillum species were isolated from soil and screened for their ability to degrade cellulose (lactose, fructose, sucrose and dextrose) for enzyme activity. Enzymatic fungi were evaluated after 7 days for the production of amylase enzymes by lactophenol microscopic examination. The concentrations for 7 days of production were formulated by dilution method as 0.148 mg/ml, 0.313 mg/ml, 0.303 mg/ml, 0.127 mg/ml, 0.161 mg/ml, 0.079 mg/ml and 0.099 mg/ml respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> The maximum amylase production was obtained on the 2nd day of production which was 0.313 mg/ml and minimum production was obtained on the 6th day of production which was 0.079 mg/ml. Optimal pH was obtained at pH of 6 and temperature of 45°C with concentrations 0.587 mg/ml and 0.090 mg/ml.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of this study implied that a high concentration of enzymatic fungi could be obtained locally from the soil and the <em>Penicillium</em> isolates hold varied industrial production of amylase.</p> S. P. E. Jakheng J. Thomas M. Umar F. S. Ojeleye A. K. Albert J. O. Oko S. A. Ojo M. R. Sagir I. C. Amuta J. D. Gaiya N. A. Kutman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 76 83 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1230207 Effect of Aluminium Phosphide on Some Nutrients and Anti-Nutritional Factors in Arachis hypogaea <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To comparatively study the effect of aluminium phosphide preservative on some nutrientional and anti-nutritional factors in <em>Arachis</em> <em>hypogaea.</em></p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Randomized design</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Nasarawa State University, Keffi between May and August, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp; </strong>Two portions of <em>A. hypogaea</em> weighing 500g each, were obtained, one portion preserved with Aluminium phosphide tablet while the second portion was without any preservative. The preservation lasted for 30 days after which the <em>A. hypogaea</em> was blended using a mechanical blender before analysis for nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The proximate compositions were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in the NAPP than APP except the fiber (03.01±0.06 mg/100 g; 03.80±0.06 mg/100 g) and ash (01.00±0.06 mg/100 g; 02.23±0.06 mg/100 g). Carbohydrates (07.40±0.06 mg/100 g; 03.48±0.06 mg/100 g), protein (19.93±0.06 mg/100 g; 14.94±0.06 mg/100), fat (74.60±0.06 mg/100g; 68.08±2.75 mg/100 g), and moisture content (06.40±0.06 mg/100 g; 3.00±0.06 mg/100 g). Exception of phosphorus (65.00±0.06mg/100g; 63.00±0.06mg/100g), the minerals concentration was significantly(p&lt;0.05) higher in NAPP compared to APP. Iron (76.20±0.06 mg/100 g; 62.00±0.06 mg/100 g), potassium (38.01±0.06mg/100 g; 26.20±0.06mg/100g), manganese (26.02±0.06mg/100g; 15.10±0.06 mg/100 g), magnesium (11.00±0.06mg/100g; 06.00±0.06 mg/100 g), calcium (82.10±0.06 mg/100 g; 72.00±0.06 mg/100 g) and zinc (25.01±0.06 mg/100 g; 14.01±0.06 mg/100 g).The anti-nutritional factors showed significant difference (p&lt;0.05) higher in tannin (9.33±0.69 mg/100 g;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1.90±0.02 mg/100 g), oxalate (32.50±0.60 mg/100 g; 42.50±.60 mg/100 g), phytate (16.72±0.60 mg/100 g; 5.48±0.60 mg/100 g), alkaloid (16.72±0.60 mg/100g; 5.48±0.60 mg/100 g) and saponins (40.74±0.60 mg/100 g; 38.20±0.60 mg/100 g) except cyanide (0.02±0.00 mg/100 g; 0.02±0.00 mg/100 g).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study showed that aluminium phosphide negatively affected the nutritional profile of <em>A. hypogaea</em>. Thus, the effect of aluminium phosphide should be further investigated <em>in vivo</em>.</p> Chibuzo Carole Nweze Haruna Gambo Sunday Aminu Dallah Tsalla Belove Danjuma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 84 92 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i1230208