Journal of Applied Life Sciences International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Applied Life Sciences International (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1103)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JALSI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘applied life sciences’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Applied Life Sciences International 2394-1103 Estimation of Vitamins in Aframomum melegueta [Roscoe] K. Schum and Its Relevance as Natural Immune Booster <p>The importance of sourcing products of natural origin in boosting immunity against infectious diseases during therapeutic interventions especially in developing countries has been underscored. The need therefore arose to investigate candidate sources within locally available flora based on identified ethno-practices in the region. The potentiality of <em>Aframomum melegueta</em> as a source of vitamins which are recognized immune boosters was investigated. Plant samples were collected from the wild near Akungba-Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria and separated into Stem, Leaf sheath, Fruit pulp (mesocarp) and Seed parts. The samples were oven-dried, pulverized and extracted with methanol and filtered with Whatman No 1 filtered paper. The filtrates were concentrated <em>in-vacuo</em> using vacuum rotary evaporator at 40°C and was later concentrated to dryness in a ventilated oven at 40°C. Analyses of vitamin content of the samples were conducted using standard analytical methods. The plant displayed a rich array of Vitamins with the seeds having the highest concentration compared to the Stem, Leaf sheath, Fruit pulp (mesocarp) and Seed extracts. Values obtained for seed and stem extracts respectively were Vitamin C (16.8 mg/g, 5.85 mg/g), Vitamin B (1.15 mg/g, 0.41 mg/g), Vitamin B<sub>3 </sub>(0.98 mg/g, 0.30 mg/g), Vitamin E (0.75 mg/g, 0.11 mg/g), Vitamin B<sub>6</sub> (0.03 mg/g, 0.006 mg/g), Vitamin B<sub>12</sub> (4.22 mg/g, 0.50 mg/g), Vitamin A (1024.1 mg/g, 189.9 mg/g), Vitamin E (0.75 mg/g, 0.11 mg/g), Vitamin D (0.68 mg/g, 0.03 mg/g) and Vitamin K (0.017 mg/g,0.007 mg/g). Standard daily recommended intakes for each vitamin are vitamin C -75 mg, B<sub>2, 3, 6 </sub>and B<sub>12</sub> ranges from 2 mg to 18 mg, A -600 µg, E -10 mg, D -5 µg, and vitamin K -80 µg. &nbsp;This study therefore elucidates the richness of <em>Aframomum melegueta </em>in essential vitamins and suggests its potential as an immune booster especially during the outbreaks of diseases. Direct consumption of the plant parts studied or as food supplement formula will be of benefit in the management of diseases.</p> V. O. Olumekun O. T. Osuntokun A. O. Ajayi I. O. Omotuyi A. Olonisakin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-13 2020-08-13 25 39 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i730173 When Oxygen Can Be Toxic? A Mini Review <p>No one within the past later a long time had in intellect that the oxygen we breathe that contributes to sparing the lives of millions of patients and the most component of life has no harmful impacts on the body. Oxygen and water are the soul of living beings in common but beneath certain &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;conditions such as weak immune status and lack of the body's ability to excrete natural &nbsp;&nbsp;antioxidants happens that the oxygen atom responds as a receptor for electrons, since its structure within the case of electronic soundness has two electrons that are not bound and as a result of progressive responses that create a few intermediate compounds. (Such as hydroxyl radical &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;(<sup>•</sup>OH), hydrogen peroxide (H<em><sub>2</sub></em>O<sub>2</sub>) and superoxide anion (<sup>•</sup>O<sup>-</sup><sub>2</sub>) that are hurtful to human’ organs &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;and influence the extraordinary degree of cell division process and the physiological activities &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;that it performs since it could be a capable oxidizer. These reactive atoms and free radicals &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;inferred from atomic oxygen are called Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). In spite of the fact that ROS play a key part as a flag-bearer in ordinary cell flag transduction and cell cycling, they have long been known to be a component of the immune reaction of safe cells to microbial invasion. ROS are created as byproducts during the mitochondrial electron transport of aerobic respiration or by oxido/reductase proteins and metal-catalyzed oxidation. The primary step in ROS generation is the reduction of atomic oxygen (O<sub>2</sub>) to anion superoxide (<sup>•</sup>O<sup>-</sup><sub>2</sub>), is the antecedent of other responsive species. For this reason, the significance of normal cancer prevention agents has gotten to be vital to urge freed of the poisonous quality of ROS and particular antioxidant supplement ought to be given to improve the diet. Among the well-known antioxidants and cancer prevention agents are glutathione, vitamins C and D as well as enzymes such as, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase which contribute successfully to the disposal of these oxidizing substances.</p> Ali Mohamed Elshafei ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 1 9 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i730171 Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles, Characterization and Their Applications <p>Nanotechnology is one of the upcoming topics in the present era. Nanoparticles are synthesized by physical and chemical methods but limitations are due to their toxicity. Hence, green synthesis is more on demand which involves the use of plants, bacteria and fungi. In this review, copper nanoparticle synthesis is focused which is economically beneficial and eco-friendly when compared to other metal nanoparticles. Copper nanoparticles are used in diverse fields such as biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, bioremediation, molecular biology, bioengineering, genetic engineering, dye degradation, catalysis, cosmetics and textiles. Structural properties and biological effects of copper nanoparticles have promising affectivity in the field of life sciences. The characterization of biogenic copper nanoparticles by number of analytical tools for their compositional, morphological and topographical features has also been discussed.</p> Swathi Pavithran Manikantan Pappuswamy Yamuna Annadurai Vijaya Anand Armugam Thirunavukkarasu Periyaswamy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 10 24 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i730172