Journal of Applied Life Sciences International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Applied Life Sciences International (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1103)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JALSI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘applied life sciences’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Applied Life Sciences International 2394-1103 Response of Some Cameroonian Cocoyam Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott. Cultivars/ Landraces to Tissue Culture Techniques <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study was aimed at exploring tissue culture technique as a tool for mass propagation of some Cameroonian cocoyam (<em>Xanthosoma sagittifolium</em>) cultivars/landraces (red, yellow and white skin colour).</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with three treatments in four replications.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted in the tissue culture laboratory of the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development, Bambui, Cameroon, in the first half of &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Explants were gotten from three Cameroonian cocoyam landraces (red, white and yellow skin colour). Shoot tips were excised and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;medium supplemented with 30 g of sucrose, 5ml of ascorbic acid, 4ml of 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP 1mg/l), 1 ml indole-3- acetic acid (IAA 1 mg/l) and 6 g of agar at pH of 5.8±0.1 for shoot initiation and proliferation. Data was collected after 4 weeks (number dead, number rooted, number of roots, number of buds) and 12 weeks (number of leaves, shoot length, number contaminated) of initiation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All the landraces responded positively to the growth media since none died. The number of explant rooted did not vary significantly (<em>p </em>&gt; .05). The highest number of roots and buds were from the white cultivar, followed by the red cultivar. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p = .05) in most of the parameters measured except for number rooted. Highest numbers of leaves and shoot length were recorded from the red cultivar, followed by the yellow and white cultivars. However, the white cultivar (4.2) was more susceptible to pathogen than the yellow (3.5) and red (2.67) cultivar (F = 19.13, df = 2, 8, <em>p</em> &lt; .001.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cameroonian cocoyam cultivars responded positively as far as growth parameters are concern on growth media. It is recommended that the three cocoyam cultivars be followed from growth media to the field and evaluate their growth and yield parameters.</p> Dominic Kumbah Njualem Tange Denis Achiri Tiozang Nangni Florente Abdulai Assan Nkuh Eugene Lendzemo Tatah Fornkwa Victorine Yaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 9 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i930182 Evidence of Regeneration of Testicular and Epididymal Tissue Structure and Function Following Withdrawal from Sub-chronic Khat Exposure: Studies in the Rabbit Animal Model <p>Khat, <em>Catha edulis</em>, use is rampant in Eastern Africa and Middle East countries with associated reports of reproductive function impairment in the body of the user. Reports on recovery post long-term khat exposure are obscure. The present study investigated evidence of restoration of testicular and epididymal structure and function during withdrawal from cytotoxic damage caused by sub-chronic exposure of khat extract. Twenty-eight male rabbits were divided into 7 groups of 4 rabbits each. Group I (control) was administered normal saline while groups II, III and IV were administered 1.0 g/kg, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg body weight of khat extract, respectively, via oral gavage on alternate days of the week for 12 weeks. Blood samples from animals were collected for hormonal assays followed by euthanasia using 26.4 mg/kg body weight of Sagatal sodium intramuscularly for testicular and epididymal histology. Group V, VI and VII were administered 1.0 g/kg, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg body weight of khat extract, respectively, orally on alternate days of the week for 12 weeks followed by 1-month withdrawal period, blood samples collected for hormone assays and animals sacrificed for testicular and epididymal histology. High khat dose, 20 g/kg body weight, at sub-chronic exposure caused degeneration in spermatogenic cells with accompanying decrease in plasma FSH and testosterone. Histological output of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and epididymal epithelium appeared unaffected in treatment groups. Post withdrawal data showed apparent regeneration of seminiferous epithelium and restoration of plasma FSH and testosterone comparable to control. It appears khat extract preferentially affected germ cell spermatogonia and subsequent daughter cells while stem cell spermatogonia were unaffected and contributed to regeneration of germinal epithelium and endocrine function.</p> Albert W. Nyongesaa Esther M. Malukib Jemimah A. Simbaunib ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 10 23 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i930183 Effects of Heavy Metals on Agronomic Attributes of Some Selected Cereal Crops (Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor) <p><strong>Aims</strong><strong>:</strong> To investigate the effect of Heavy metals on the growth of <em>Zea mays</em> (<em>Z. mays</em>) and <em>Sorghum bicolour</em> (<em>S. bicolour</em>).</p> <p><strong>Study Design</strong><strong>: </strong>Laboratory-experimental design was used in this study.</p> <p><strong>Place of Study</strong><strong>:</strong> The heavy metal polluted soil samples were collected from Crush Rock Industries Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, while control soil samples were obtained from the Zoological Garden of the Department of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Enugu State University of Science and Technology.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The seeds of the two plants were collected from the Enugu State Ministry of Agriculture. The experimental setup consisted of 16 contaminated potted soils, 8 each for <em>Z. mays</em> and <em>S. bicolor</em>. Another 8 potted soils not contaminated with heavy metals served as control. Fourteen days after germination, the following growth parameters were measured (in cm); plant heights, number of leaves, stem girth, and leaf area.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The polluted soil sample was slightly acidic; (pH was 6.34±0.29). It had a higher cation exchange capacity (21.80±0.33), Cd (25.18±0.34), Cr (10.20±0.21), Cu (28.54±0.49), Pb (9.92±0.36), but lesser soil organic carbon (0.87±0.10). Plant samples cultivated in contaminated soil showed the least favourable vegetative growth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Comparing the results obtained from the control sample, it was deduced that these heavy metals have adverse effect on the vegetative growth of <em>Z. mays</em> and <em>S. bicolor</em>.</p> G. I. Ameh H. O. Nwamba C. D. Nwani E. C. Ofordile ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 24 30 10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i930184