Journal of Applied Life Sciences International <p><strong>Journal of Applied Life Sciences International (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1103)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JALSI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘applied life sciences’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p>This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Applied Life Sciences International 2394-1103 Acute, Sub-acute and Chronic Toxicity Evaluation of Aqueous Extract of the Aerial Parts of Leonurus cardiaca in Normal Non-pregnant Female Wistar Albino Rats per OECD 425 TG <p>This study graded the acute, sub-acute, and chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of the aerial parts of <em>Leonurus cardiaca</em> in non-pregnant female wistar rats. Fifty wistar albino rats weighing between 180 and 200g were used for this study. The rats were grouped into 10 groups of five rats per group. Group 1 served as control while group 2-11 were orally administered aqueous extract of <em>Leonurus cardiaca</em> at 166, 250, and 500mg/kg for 7, 14, and 21 days. All haematological and biochemical parameters were determined based on standard methods. The plasma RBC, Hb, MCV, and WBC of the control were 5.33±0.01 x 10<sup>12</sup>/L, 13.54±0.01 g/dl, 42.16±0.01 fl, and 1.83±0.01 X 10<sup>9</sup>/L respectively. The plasma RBC, Hb, MCV, and WBC of the rats treated with 500mg/kg of the extract for 21 days were 10.93±0.01x 10<sup>12</sup>/L, 19.24±0.01g/dl, 28.33±0.01fl, and 1.41±0.01 x 10<sup>9</sup>/L respectively and were significantly different from the control at p≤0.05. The plasma Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup> , Cl<sup>-</sup>, HCO<sub>3 </sub>, creatinine, and urea levels treated with extract at 500mg/kg for 21 days were 167.97±0.01 01mmol/l, 7.85±0.0101mmol/l, 164.24±0.0101mmol/l, 40.84±0.0101mmol/l, 1.16±0.0101mmol/l, and 5.68±0.02 01mmol/l respectively, were significantly different from the control at p≤0.05. The plasma ALT, ALP, and AST activities treated with extract at 500mg/kg for 21 days were 146.24±0.02U/L, 77.33±0.01U/L, and 168.71±0.01U/L respectively, were significantly different from the control at p≤0.05. Enhancement on architecture of the heart, kidney and liver tissues occurred after treatment with 500mg/kg of the extract for 21 days in comparison to the control. The significantly improved effects observed on all assayed parameters were expressive that the extract of the aerial parts of <em>Leonurus cardiaca</em> is safe at 500 mg/Kg.</p> E. O. Wellington E. N. Onyeike D. E. Peters M. B. Otobo D. Felix S. J. Ogbomade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-18 2022-10-18 1 17 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i6580 Evaluation of Cardiovascular Effects of Carvacrol in a D-(+)-Galactose-Induced aging Model <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the cardiovascular effect of carvacrol treatment in a D(+)galactose accelerated aging model, investigating effects on vascular reactivity, oxidative stress, and systolic blood pressure (SBP).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Eight-week-old male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were used for oral treatment for eight weeks. Organ baths were used for vascular reactivity studies (FEN, ACh, and NPS), fluorescence microscopy to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS, using DHE probe), and Tail-Cuff for systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements. Non-linear regression was used to create the concentration-response curves. Emax denotes the tissue's maximum response.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The aged rats showed a significant increase in fluorescence intensity by the DHE probe compared to the CTL group (CTL=100 ± 3.6%, n=5 and Dgal=167.7 ± 7.9%, n=5, respectively). However, the levels of ROS in the carvacrol-treated groups were significantly attenuated in the Dgal+C50 (138.8 ± 4.5%, n=5) and Dgal+C100 (130.0 ± 5.5%, n=5) groups. The animals of the Dgal group presented hypertension through the significant increase in SBP compared to the CTL group (CTL=135.9 ± 3.9 mmHg, n=6, Dgal=170.9 ± 2.0 mmHg, n=9, respectively). The increased SBP of Dgal rats could be reversed by treatment with carvacrol (Dgal+C50=137.9 ± 2.7 mmHg, n=5, and Dgal+C100=124.6 ± 8.2 mmHg, n=5, respectively. On the other hand, carvacrol was unable to restore the ACh-induced vasorelaxation effect found in CTL (Emax=100.0 ± 3.9%), Dgal (Emax=84.9 ± 4.4%), Dgal+C50 (Emax=84.9 ± 4.4%) and Dgal+C100 (Emax=82.1 ± 6.2 %).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Carvacrol shows protective antioxidant effects capable of reducing SBP in aged animals, being an important tool in promoting healthy aging.</p> Sabine Helena Dantas Arthur José Pontes de Almeida Tays Amanda Felisberto Gonçalves Islania Gisélia Albuquerque Araújo Mathania Silva de Almeida Rezende Robson Cavalcante Veras Antônia Lêda Silva Isac Almeida de Medeiros ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-18 2022-10-18 18 27 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i6581 Identification and Molecular Characterization of Bacteria and Fungi Associated with Three Fresh Edible Mushrooms <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Mushrooms are health-food used as food supplements and fortification but are susceptible to microbial spoilage due to high moisture content and nutrient status. Fresh mushrooms sometimes show signs of spoilage after harvest and makes storage difficult. The objective of the study was to identify and characterize bacteria and fungi associated with three fresh edible mushrooms, under ambient and cold temperatures.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was conducted at the Bells University of Technology, Nigeria, between December 2020 and October 2021. <em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em> and<em> Calocybe indica</em> fruitbodies were procured from the Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi while <em>Pleurotus tuber-regium</em> fruitbodies were obtained from sclerotia planted in loamy soil. The fruitbodies were kept at ambient (28<sup>o</sup>C) and cold (15<sup>o</sup>C) temperatures respectively. The bacterial and fungal counts on each of the mushrooms were taken at 0,3, 5, and 7 days after harvest. The isolated bacteria were identified by conventional methods; Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E kits (BioMerieux), while Fungi were identified by morphological features and PCR amplification using ITS 1f/ ITS 4r universal primers.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The bacterial and fungal counts on the fruitbodies ranged from 5.7 log CFU/ml – 6.3 log CFU/ml and 5.0 log CFU/ml – 5.9 log CFU/ml respectively. Seven genera of bacteria isolated were gram-negative bacteria. At ambient temperature, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Enterobacter asburiae</em>, <em>Klebsiella oxytoca</em>, <em>Klebsiella ornithinolytica</em>, <em>Serratia marcescens</em>, <em>Chryseobacterium meningosepticum</em> and <em>Cedecea davisae </em>were isolated while <em>Enterobacter cloacae</em>, <em>Enterobacter sakazakii</em> and <em>Citrobacter braakii</em> were isolated at cold temperature.<em> Aspergillus, Penicillium, </em>and <em>Fusarium </em>were isolated at both temperatures while Alternaria was isolated at ambient temperature.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Isolated bacteria and fungi were mostly enteric pathogens and potential mycotoxin-producing fungi. This is an indication that strict hygiene and control measures should be put in place during the production and storage of these mushrooms in order to improve the quality and food safety of fresh mushrooms in Nigeria.</p> Caroline Iruoma Anyakorah Adeniji Omolara Folakemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 28 36 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i6582 Phytochemical Content and Antibacterial Effect of Ethanolic and Methanolic Extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus Mushroom <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Microbial resistance is a threat to the successful treatment of microbial infections. Mushrooms are known to possess antimicrobial and antioxidant potential which could be inhibitory to some pathogenic organisms. The aim was to assess the phytochemicals and antimicrobial potential of <em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em> extracts on some pathogenic organisms.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was conducted at the Bells University of Technology, Nigeria, between December 2019 and August 2020. A 10% dried powder of <em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em> was extracted in absolute ethanol and methanol and evaporated in a water bath at 50 <sup>o</sup>C. Extracts were reconstituted in dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) at 12.5, 25, 50, and 100% respectively. Antibiotic effects of extracts were tested on <em>Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, </em>and<em> Staphylococcus saprophyticus </em>by agar well diffusion method and compared with standard antibiotic discs. DMSO and the solvents served as positive and negative controls. Ethanolic extract was subjected to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The extracts exhibited varying inhibitory effects on the organisms except on <em>E coli </em>at 12.5% ethanolic extract. The inhibition zones increased with extract concentration from 2-12 mm and 4-14 mm in ethanolic and methanolic extracts respectively. The inhibitory effect of standard antibiotics was higher 17-25 mm except for erythromycin (13-14 mm). Test organisms were resistant to Beta Lactams (augmentin, cefuroxime, and ceftazidime) and sensitive to Aminoglycoside (gentamicin), Fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin), Ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin. GC/MS revealed the presence of 30 organic compounds, amongst them were sugar, sugar alcohols, alkaloids, amines, fatty acids, esters, aldehydes, and alcohols. The most abundant were oleic acid (33.75%) and 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)-2-hydroxy-1- (21.21%). Phytochemicals are heterocyclic compounds found in natural products.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>P. ostreatus</em> has been revealed to possess phytochemicals of medical relevance with potential for pharmacological application. The implication is that<em> Pleurotus</em> <em>ostreatus </em>extracts could serve as a lead to novel drug discoveries which could enhance health and nutritional well-being.</p> Caroline Iruoma Anyakorah Folashade Agbaje-Daniels ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 47 55 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i6585 Overview of CRISPR-Cas Mediated Genome Engineering <p>Genetic diseases are prevailing in 3-5% of new-born worldwide and estimated to cause around 50% of child deaths. The development of efficient and regulated system for customizing genome modifications to treat such disorders has been the zone of interest. Over time, different editing techniques have emerged based on programmable nucleases such as ZFN or TALENS but among all, CRISPR-Cas has significantly progressed as alteration tool from bench to clinical practices. CRISPR-Cas is an immune system discovered in prokaryotes that enables organism to recognize and destroy any invading genetic elements. This functional property of CRISPR has opened up plethora of applications across different disciplines such as diagnostics, agriculture and therapeutics. So here, the review attempt to discuss origin, mechanisms pertinent to CRISPR and applications along with challenges concerning them.</p> T. G. Bhuvana N. Ranjitha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-01 2022-11-01 37 46 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i6583