Journal of Applied Life Sciences International https://journaljalsi.com/index.php/JALSI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Applied Life Sciences International (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1103)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JALSI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘applied life sciences’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Applied Life Sciences International 2394-1103 Optimization of Biogas Production from Cassava Peels Mixed with Urea by Central Composite Design Methodology https://journaljalsi.com/index.php/JALSI/article/view/30288 <p>The amount of cassava wastes is increasing day by day especially in the developing countries like&nbsp; Nigeria and Democratic Republic of Congo because of the high demand of cassava as food or as raw matter in starch factories.&nbsp; In the both process, 1/3 of wastes is generated from 1 Kg of cassava tubers which could be used as substrate to produce biogas which is the renewable energy to decrease oil dependence and therefore atmospheric pollution depletion. The present study aims to know the optimal conditions for biogas production from biomethanization of cassava peels mixed with urea in mesophilic conditions during 14 days in sixteen reactors of 1 Litre capacity, using response surface methodology (RSM). Two parameters were studied, organic loading rate (OLR) and urea concentration (UC). The variations used for OLR was 5% and 15% TS and for UC, it was 0.01 % and 0.05 %. The variations obtained inside were determined by Central Composite Design (CCD) made from rsm package of R software 4.1.1. Based on experimental results analysis, it was found that urea concentration affect biogas production (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05), the optimum value of Organic Loading Rate and urea concentration were 6.688%TS and 0.0067% respectively, with a optimal biogas yield of 3260.694 mL. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination value (R<sup>2</sup>=0.8146) at 95% confidence level and a p-value of 0.002. The results show that urea concentration has a major impact on biogas production (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05).</p> M.T. Nkodi S. J. Kayembe G. Ekoko R. Kizungu M. Mabela K. C. Mulaji K. M. Taba ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-07 2022-05-07 1 8 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i330288 Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activities of Dillenia indica and Ficus exasperata https://journaljalsi.com/index.php/JALSI/article/view/30289 <p>It has been proven that antimicrobials of plant origin work more efficiently with fewer side effects. This study aimed to identify the phytochemicals in extracts of <em>Dillenia indica</em> and <em>Ficus exasperata</em> and also to examine their antibacterial effect on clinical bacterial isolates (<em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em>). Dry leaves of <em>D. indica</em> and <em>F. exasperata</em> were extracted in ethanol, methanol, distilled water and hot water. The 100% extract solution was further diluted to different concentrations (75%, 50%, and 25%). The extracts were concentrated using a rotary evaporator. Using the agar well diffusion method, the isolates were subjected to the antibacterial action of various concentrations of these extracts. The diameter of the zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. The data obtained were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine significant (P&lt;0.05) effects. Significant differences between means were determined using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, quinones, and anthrax quinones. Terpenoids were absent. The extracts of the plants inhibited the growth of the bacteria tested with varied effectiveness. The diameter of the zones of inhibition were concentration dependent in all extracts. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in the organic solvent extracts. When the activity of the plant extract was compared with that of the standard antibiotics used in this work, it was observed that the plant extract compared favourably with those of these standard antibiotics. In conclusion, the results showed that leaf extract of <em>D. indica</em> and <em>F. exasperata</em> have antibacterial activity. Based on the antibacterial activity of&nbsp;<em>D. indica</em> and&nbsp;&nbsp;<em>F. exasperata</em>&nbsp;extracts as revealed by this research, the extracts of these plants can be used in the development of new pharmaceuticals which can be useful as strong therapeutic agent against bacterial pathogenic infections.</p> Olasupo John Ilori Iyioluwa Esther Abe Azeez God’s Gift Ibrahim Temiloluwa Folasayo Afolayan Omolola Abiola Bassey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-14 2022-05-14 9 17 10.9734/jalsi/2022/v25i330289