Avian Influenza Surveillance in Pigs, Dogs, Chickens and Slaughter Slabs Biosecurity in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

A. Assam *

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture & Forestry, University of Cross River State (Unicross), Obubra, Nigeria.

D. Shehu

Nigerian Quarantine Service, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Avian influenza is a zoonotic disease likely to be exposed to dog, pig and poultry owners & their processors who are in close contact during processing of these animals in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. The study assessed the biosecurity practice of processors in pig, poultry, and dog slaughter slabs; and the prevalence of Avian Influenza (H5 subtype) antibodies in dogs, pigs, and chickens in Kaduna Metropolis. The slaughter slab biosecurity practices were evaluated using questionnaires while the H5 antibodies surveillance was determined by hemagglutination inhibition test. Serum samples from 45 dogs, 104 pigs and 75 chickens were tested for H5 subtype. H5 subtype antibodies prevalence in dogs was 2.2% with a mean titre of 9.0 ± 0 log2 while prevalence and mean titre in chicken were 6.7% and 8.5 ± 0.32 log2 respectively. All pig sera tested were negative for H5 subtype antibodies. The chicken H5 subtype prevalence in central market and railway station live bird markets were 4.3% and 13% respectively. H5 subtype antibodies were present in dogs and chickens in Kaduna metropolis. There is the need for targeted surveillance of avian influenza in dogs and pigs should be incorporated in the national avian influenza surveillance program.

Keywords: Avian influenza, biosecurity, chickens, dog, Kaduna metropolis, pig, slaughter slabs, surveillance


How to Cite

Assam , A., and D. Shehu. 2023. “Avian Influenza Surveillance in Pigs, Dogs, Chickens and Slaughter Slabs Biosecurity in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria”. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International 26 (5):17-26. https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2023/v26i5615.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Capua I, Alexander D. Human health implications of avian Influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 2004;23:1-6.

Kida H, Kawaoka Y, Naeve CW, Webster RG. Antigenic and genetic conservation of H3 influenza virus in wild ducks. Virology. 1987;159:109–119.

Brown JD, Swayne DE, Cooper RJ, Burns RE, Stallknecht DE. Persistence of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses in water. Avian Diseases. 2007;51:285-289.

Assam A, Abdu PA, Owoade AA, Ezealor A, Sai'du L. Avian influenza, newcastle and gumboro disease antigen and antibodies among wild birds in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Bulletin for Animal Health and Production for Africa. 2014;62 (2):181-194.

Assam A, Abdu PA, Joannis TM, Nok AJ. Influenza A antigen, Newcastle and Gumboro disease antibodies apparently healthy local poultry. Bulletin for Animal Health and Production for Africa. 2011;59 (1):25- 36.

Durosinlorun A. Avian influenza (H5N2) antibodies in local chicken and awareness level of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State. MSc. Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. 2008;1-91.

Swayne DE, Jackwood MP. Pathobiology of avian influenza virus infections in birds and mammals. In David. E. Swayne (ed.): Avian Influenza 1st ed. Blackwell: Ames, Iowa – USA. 2008;87-122.

Nicolas G, Giovanni C, Saliha H, Scott HN, Ward H, John YT, Julien C, Tim D, Tony J, et al. Evidence of infection by H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in healthy wild waterfowl. PLoS Pathology. 2008:4(8):e1000127.

Songserm T, Jam-on R, Sae-Heng N, Payungporn S. Fetal avian influenza H5N1 in dog. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006b;12:1744-1747.

Songserm T, Amonsin A, Jam-on R, Sae-Heng N, Meemak N, Pariyothorn N, Payungporn S, Theamboonlers A, Poovarawa Y. Avian influenza H5N1 in naturally infected domestic cat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006a;12:681-683.

Pulit-Penaloza JA, Belser JA, Brock N, Thakur PB, Tumpey TM, Maines TR. Pathogenesis and transmissibility of north american highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in ferrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1913-1915. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220879

ProMED. Avian influenza (45): Europe (UK, Croatia) seal, fox, wild bird, HPAI H5N8; 2021.

Available:http://www.promedmail.org, archive no. 20210317.8252821.

Resource Inventory and Management Report (RIM). 1993;1-4. FDLPCS.

Colle JR, Duguid JP, Fraser AG, Marmion BP. Practical Medical Microbiology, 13th Ed. Mackie and McCartney, Churchill Livingstone. 1982;37-39.

World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Avian influenza. In: Terrestrial Animal Health Code, sixteenth ed., OIE, Paris, France. 2009;279–285.

Chestakova IV, van der Linden A, Bellido-Martín B, Sikkema R. High number of HPAI H5 Virus Infections and Antibodies in Wild Carnivores in the Netherlands, 2020-2022; 2023.

DOI: 10.1101/2023.05.12.540493

Newbury SP, Cigel F, Killian ML, et al. First detection of avian lineage H7N2 in Felis catus. Genome Announc. 2017;5:e00457–17.

Qi Y, Ni HB, Chen X, Li S. Seroprevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus infection among humans in mainland China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transbound. Emerg. Dis; 2020.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13564. PMID: 32259345

Sirawan A, Berry A, Badra R, El Bazzal B, Dabaja M, Kataya H, Kandeil A, Gomaa MR, Ali M, Kayali G. Avian influenza surveillance at the human-animal interface in Lebanon, 2017. Eastern Mediterranean Health J. 2020;26(7):774–8.

Avian Influenza Control Project (AICP). Highly pathogenic avian influenza surveillance and recent updates. Bird flu Watch. 2008;1(1):10.

ProMED. Avian influenza, human (02): Russia, H5N8, first case; 2021.

Available:http://www.promedmail.org, archive no. 20210221.8204014

Abdu PA, Assam A, Ntui-Tabe LN. Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2013;45(1):335-343.

Agüero M, Monne I, Sánchez A, Zecchin B, Fusaro A, Ruano M, del Valle A, Fernández-Antonio R, Souto A, Tordable P, Cañás J, Bonfante F, Giussani E, Terregino C, Orejas J. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in farmed minks, Spain, October 2022. Euro Surveillance. 2023;28(3).

Available:https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2023.28.3.2300001

Chen S, Li Z, Hu M, Guo S, Wu J, Wang B, Hu W, Sun Y, Li H, Liu M, Moore J, Chen H. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) relating to avian influenza (H10N8) among Farmers’ markets workers in nanchang, China. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(5):e0127120.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127120

Assam A, Abdu PA, Tabe-Ntui LN. Local Poultry farmers’ media use, access and understanding of highly pathogenic avian influenza communication materials in Nigeria. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2012;60(1): 93-102.