Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activities of Dillenia indica and Ficus exasperata
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International,
It has been proven that antimicrobials of plant origin work more efficiently with fewer side effects. This study aimed to identify the phytochemicals in extracts of Dillenia indica and Ficus exasperata and also to examine their antibacterial effect on clinical bacterial isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes). Dry leaves of D. indica and F. exasperata were extracted in ethanol, methanol, distilled water and hot water. The 100% extract solution was further diluted to different concentrations (75%, 50%, and 25%). The extracts were concentrated using a rotary evaporator. Using the agar well diffusion method, the isolates were subjected to the antibacterial action of various concentrations of these extracts. The diameter of the zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. The data obtained were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine significant (P<0.05) effects. Significant differences between means were determined using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, quinones, and anthrax quinones. Terpenoids were absent. The extracts of the plants inhibited the growth of the bacteria tested with varied effectiveness. The diameter of the zones of inhibition were concentration dependent in all extracts. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in the organic solvent extracts. When the activity of the plant extract was compared with that of the standard antibiotics used in this work, it was observed that the plant extract compared favourably with those of these standard antibiotics. In conclusion, the results showed that leaf extract of D. indica and F. exasperata have antibacterial activity. Based on the antibacterial activity of D. indica and F. exasperata extracts as revealed by this research, the extracts of these plants can be used in the development of new pharmaceuticals which can be useful as strong therapeutic agent against bacterial pathogenic infections.
- Dillenia indica
- Ficus exasperata
- zone of inhibition
- leaf extracts
How to Cite
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