Effect of Port Activities on the Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Surface Water in Warri and Onne Port Terminals, Nigeria
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International,
Activities around the port terminals such as cargo handling, and others has environmental implications both inside and outside the port area which may in turn pose severe risks to the environment and water resources resulting to adverse effect on the physicochemical and microbiological quality of the water body. Hence this study was aimed at determination of the effect of port activities on the physicochemical and microbiological quality of surface water at Warri and Onne Port terminals. Surface water samples were collected during wet and dried season between January to June from Onne and Warri port terminals, using sterile containers and transported in an ice packed container to Department of Microbiology laboratory of the Rivers State University for microbiological and physicochemical analyse using standard methods. Statistical analyses were carried out using ANOVA and All pairs tukey-kramer. Results of the Physicochemical Characteristics of the surface water of the dry season ranged as follows; pH (5.6±0.15 to 6.08±0.22),Temperature (27.6±4.278 to 30±1ºC), Electric conductivity (14168±1.90to 2138±27.871 µs/cm), Total dissolved solid (2622±1.70 to 974.2±9.09 mg/l ),Total suspended solid (7.6±0.54 to 111±21.284 mg/l), Dissolved oxygen (2.08±0.19 to 2.68±0.31 mg/l ), Biological oxygen demand (0.78±0.19 to 1.2±0.45 mg/l ), Chemical oxygen demand (1.56±0.38 to 2.4±0.90 mg/l),Turbidity (0.2±0 to 1.36±0.336 NTU),Bromine (0.3±0.01 to 0.6±0 mg/l), Chlorine (<0.001±0 to 0.3±0 mg/l),Nitrate (0.32±0.15 to 5.98±0.74 mg/l ), Sulphate (3.32±0.75 to 694±1.9 mg/l) Phosphate (0.634±0.42 to 2.316±0.44 mg/l ), similar trends were recorded during the wet season. There were significant differences ( P<0.05) between the wet and dry seasons. The mean values of the microbiological results ranged from 1.6±0.77 x 106 to 5.6±2.17 x 106 cfu/ml (Total heterotrophic bacterial count), 0.8 ±2.51 x 104 to 5.6±2.77 x 104 cfu/ml (Total heterotrophic Fungal count), 0.2 ±1.14 x 104 to 3.6 ±1.52 cfu/ml (Hydrocarbon utilizing Bacteria counts) 0.3 ±1.52 x 104 to 1.2 ±2.05cfu/ml (Hydrocarbon utilizing Fungal counts), 0.2±0.71x 104 to 0.6±0.89 x 104cfu/ml (Salmonella spp.). 0.4±0.55 x 104 cfu/ml (Shigella spp), 0.3 ±2.19 x 104 to 1.6±5.13 x 104 cfu/ml (Vibrio spp.) 1.6 ±14.7 x 104 to 2.1±6.39 x 104 cfu/ml Staphylococci spp), 3.9±0.81 x 104 to 4.6 ±1.79 x 104cfu/ml (total coliform), 1.8±0.44 x 104 to 2.7 ±1.03 x 104cfu/ml (feacal coliform). Higher counts were recorded during the wet season compared to dry season. In this study, nine bacteria isolates belonging to the genera and species:- E.coli, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Bacillus sp., Shigella, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, and Proteus, Six fungal isolates, namely, Penicillium sp Candida sp, Mucor sp, Aspergillus, Rhizopus spp, and Yeast were obtained. The results obtained in this study Port terminal houses several companies with beehive of activities which generate various industrial wastes which causes adverse environmental effects which consequently are major atmospheric and water pollution around port terminals. Therefore, proper waste management system should be maintained to avoid emergence of virulent pathogens.
- Port activitie physico-chemistry
- surface water
- microorganisms and pollution
How to Cite
Gupta AK, Ephraim BE, Ajayi. The complete technology book on biofertilizer and organic farming. National Institute of industrial research press India. 2015;242-253.
Grifoll M, Jord`a G, Espino M, Romo J, García-Sotillo M. A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study. J Mar Syst. 2011;88(1):60–73.
Al-Azab M, EL-Shorbagy WAL-Ghais S. Oil pollution and its environmental impact in the Arabian Gulf region. London: Elsevier; 2005.
Puig M, Wooldridge C, Darbra RM. Identification and selection of environmental performance indicators for sustainable port development. Mar Pollut Bull. 2014;81(1):124–130.
Panchani M, Pandya M. Identification and quantification of non-point sources of pollution to Sabarmati River, Ahmedabad. International Journal of Engineering Research. 2013;2(2):71-75.
Coulliette AD, Noble RT. Impacts of rainfall on the water quality of the Newport River Estuary (Eastern North Carolina, USA), Journal of Water and Health. 2008;6(4):4-9.
Nel LH, Markotter W. New and emerging waterborne infectious diseases. Encyclopedia of life support system. 2009;1:1-10.
WHO; World Health Organization and UNICEF. Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target.The urban and rural challenges of decade; 2004.
Ullah S, Javed MW, Rasheed SB, Jamal Q, Aziz F, Ullah S. Assessment of groundwater Quality of district Dir Lower Pakistan. International Journal of Biosciences. 2014;4(8):248-255.
Jabeen S, Hanif MA , Khan MM , Waseem R, Qadri K. Natural products sources and their active compounds on disease prevention: A Review. International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences. 2014;6:76-83.
Khan MA, Ghouri AM. Environmental Pollution: Its effects on life and its remedies. Journal of arts, science and commerce 2011;2(2):276-85.
Halder JN, Islam MN. Water pollution and its impact on the human health. Journal of environment and human. 2015;2(1):36-46.
Prescott LM, Harley JP, Klein DA. Microbiology. 6th ed. McGraw Hill, London. 2021;135-140.
Ogbonna DN, Azuonwu TC. Plasmid profile and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria from abattoirs in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria, International Journal of Pathogen Research. 2019;2(2):1-11.
Okerentugba EU, Ezeronye AO. Studies on the effect of abattoir and industrial effluents on the heavy metals and microbial quality of Aba River Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2003; 4(3):266-272.
Okerentugba PO, Ezeronye OU. Petroleum Degrading Potentials of Single and Mixed Microbial Cultures Isolated from Rivers and Refinery Effluent in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2003;2: 288-292.
Obire O, Anyanwu EC, Okigbo RN. Saprophytic and crude oil degrading fungi from cow dung and poultry droppings as bioremediating agents. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2008;4:(2) 81-89.
Odokuma LO. Ecotoxicological evaluation of industrial degreaser on Nitrobacter sp. Journal of International Society of Comparative Education, Science and Technology. 2003;2(2):356-365.
Collins A, Brown JS, Newman SE. Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 1989;453–494.
Cheesebrough M. District laboratory practices in tropical countries (Second Edition ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2002.
Holt JG, Kreig NR, Sneath PHA, Stanley JT, Stanley ST. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. Baltimore, USA; William and Wilkins; 1994.
Amaku GE, Akani NP. Physicochemical properties of the effluents of Forcados Terminal in Warri, Delta State. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2016;8(2):9-13.
NSDWQ, Nigeria standard for drinking water quality, Nigeria Industrial Standard, Approve by Standard Organization of Nigeria Governing Council. 2008;20(13): 15-19.
Ephraim, Ajayi, Ephraim BE, Ajayi IO. Compositional evaluation and quality status of surface waters of Mbat-Abiati and Oberekkai creeks of the Great Kwa River, Southeastern Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2015;6(6):36-46.
Obunwo CC, Chukwudi C. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics of produced water from terminals of some oil industry facilities in Nigeria. J Appl Sci Environ Management. 2015;19 (2):177-180.
Yao W, Byme RH. Spectrophotometric determination of fresh water pH using bromocresol purple and phenol red. Environ Sci Technol. 2001;3(5):97-120.
Moses BS. The influence of flood regime on fish catch and fish communities of the Cross river flood plain ecosystem Nigeria. Environmental Biology of Fish. 1987;1:857-65.
Akpan E, Ugbaja AN, George NJ. Integrated geophysical, geochemical and hydrogeological investigation of shallow groundwater resources in parts of the Ikom-Mamfe Embayment and the adjoining areas in Cross River State, Nigeria; Environ. Earth Sci. 2015;70(3):1435-1456.
Mandri T, Lin J. Isolation and characterization of engine oil degrading indigenous microrganisms in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6:23-27.
Ogbonna D. Seasonal dynamics of microbial population and physicochemical characteristics of a water body receiving industrial pollutants in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2010;2(3):2151-7525.
Aranilewa ST, Ekrekene T, Akinneye JO. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (mot.). Afr J Biotechnol. 2006; 5(21):2032–2036.
Meregini-Ikechukwu PC, Ogbonna1 DN, Akani NP. Water quality assessment of elechi creek receiving effluent discharges from industrial activities in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology. 2020;20(8):21-30.
Nwidu LL, Oveh B, Okoriye T, Vaikosen NA. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water-borne diseases in Amassoma Niger Delta, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(17):2993-2997.
Rocourt G. Basic groundwater hydrology. U.S. Geological Surveys Water-Supply Papers 2013;2(2):20-78.
Abstract View: 10 times
PDF Download: 6 times