Acaricidal Activity of Commiphora merkeri Bark Exudate against Two Species of Rhipicephalus Koch (Acari; Ixodidae) by Larval and Adult Immersion Test

Main Article Content

Ester Innocent
Ismail Almas Athman
Suzana Augustino


Ticks pose a threat in the infestation of both wild and domestic animals, thereby causing an increase in chances for transmission of diseases. Despite of the wide use of Commiphora species in tick control, no acaricidal activity of Commiphora merkeri. Engl. Exudate have been scientifically assessed. The acaricidal activity of the exudate extract and its Petroleum ether (PE), Dichloromethane (DCM) and Ethyl acetate (ETOAC) fractions were carried out by using the larval immersion test (LIT) and adult immersion test (AIT), against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus averts. The crude extracts of C. merkeri showed 80% and 70% mortality on the LIT bioassay at concentration of 1.0 mg/mL for R. averts and R. appendiculatus, respectively. There was no statistical difference (p≥0.05) in activity of petroleum ether and dichloromethane fractions exhibiting 100% mortality at concentration of 1.0 mg/mL for R. appendiculatus and R. averts, also at 0.8 mg/mL to R. averts species. R. averts was more susceptible that R. appendiculatus showing stable incremental mortality in all concentration levels. In the AIT, no statistical significant difference (p≥0.05) in reduction was observed for crude extract of C. merkeri and petroleum ether fractions by having no surviving R. averts above 0.025 mg/mL after 24 and 72 h. The same trend was observed for R. appendiculatus within 24 h of exposure. However, at lower concentrations the residual effect of treatments on the ticks continued to elicit the effect over time having few or no immediate effect of death after exposure, This was vivid for R. averts within 24 and after 72 h. Follow up of survived engorged adults indicated that, the ticks could lay eggs but the eggs were not viable for hatching. This justifies its uses as an alternative agent in an integrated approach in reducing tick infestation among Pastoralist.

Acaricidal, Commiphora merkeri exudates, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus averts, larval immersion test, adult immersion test.

Article Details

How to Cite
Innocent, E., Athman, I. A., & Augustino, S. (2021). Acaricidal Activity of Commiphora merkeri Bark Exudate against Two Species of Rhipicephalus Koch (Acari; Ixodidae) by Larval and Adult Immersion Test. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 24(1), 1-8.
Original Research Article


Aeschlimann A, Freyvogel TA. Biology and distribution of ticks of medical importance. In: Meier, J. & White, J. (Eds.), Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons. 1995;236:177–189.

Kalala W, Magadula JJ, Mdegela H. Evaluation of acaricidal activity of Commiphora swynertonii (Burrt.) bark exudates against common ticks in Tanzania. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2014;2(4):19-25.

Vuorela P, Leinonen M, Saikku P, Tammela P, Rouha JP, Wennberg T, Vuorela H. Natural products in the process of finding new drug candidates. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2004;11:1375-89.

Soromessa T. Ecological phytogeography: a case study of Commiphora species. Science, Technology and Art Research Journal 2013;2(3):93-104.

Gillett JB. Flora of Tropical East Africa: Burseraceae. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands. 1991;21.

Innocent E, Augustino S, Kisinza W. Plants used to control mosquitoes and treat mosquito related diseases in Maasai-land of Longido District, Tanzania. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2016;12(2):1-12.

Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO]. Recommended methods for the detection and measurement of resistance of agricultural pests to pesticides - tentative method for larvae of cattle ticks, Boophilus microplus spp. FAO method no. 7. FAO Plant Protection Bullettin. 1971;19:15-18.

Gazim Z, Demarchi IG, Lonardoni MVC, Amorim ACL, Hovell AMC, Rezende CM, Ferreira GA, Lima EL, Cosmo FA, Cortez DAG. Acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae). Experimental Parasitology. 2011;129(2):175-178.

Abbott WS. A method for computing the effectiveness of insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology. 1925;18:265-267.

Holdsworth PA, Kemp D, Green P, Peter RJ, De Bruin C, Jonsson NN, Letonja T, Rehbein S, Vercruysse J, World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of acaricides against ticks (Ixodidae) on ruminants. Veterenary Parasitology. 2006;136(1):29-43.

Pirali-Kheirabadi Kh, Teixeira da Silva J. In-vitro Assessment of the acaricidal properties of Artemisia annua and Zataria multiflora essential oils to control cattle ticks. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2011;6(1):58-65.

Abdel-Shafy S, Zayed AA. In vitro acaricidal effect of plant extract of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica) on egg, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae). Vetirenary Parasitology. 2002;106(1):89-96.

Giglioti R, Forimb MR, Oliveira HN, Chagas ACS, Ferrezini J, Britoe LG, Falcoski TORS, Albuquerque LG, Oliveira MCS. In vitro acaricidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts with known azadirachtin concentrations against Rhipicephalus microplus. Veterinary Parasitology. 2011;181(2–4):309-315.

Jansawan W, Jittapalapong S, Jantaraj N. Effect of Stemona collinsae extract against cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus). Kasetsart Journal of Natural Sciences. 1993;27(3):336–340.

Mwangi EN, Hassanali A, Essuman S, Myandat E, Moreka L, and Kimondo M Repellent and acaricidal properties of Ocimum suave against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. Experimental & Applied Acarology. 1995;19:11-18.

Mkangara M, Erasto P, Chacha M. Acaricidal activity of Commiphora Swynnertonii (Burtt) stem bark extracts against adult Rhipicephalus Appendiculatus Neumann and Amblyomma Variegatum. American Journal of Research Communication. 2014;2(9):82-92.

Kalala WM. Ethnobotany of Dorobo people, acaricidal activity, toxicity and bioactive compounds of Commiphora swynnertonii bark exudates. PhD Thesis, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.2017;6-9.

Carroll JF, Maradufu A. An extract of Commiphora erythraea: a repellent and toxicant against ticks. Entomologia experimentalis et applicate. 1989;53 (2):111-116.

Maradufu A. Furanosesquiterpenoids of Commiphora erythraea and C. myrrh. Phytochemistry 1982;21(3):677-680.

Birkett MA, Abassi SA, Kröber T, Chamberlain K, Hooper AM, Guerin PM, Pettersson J, Pickett JA, Slade R, Wadhams LJ. Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana. Phytochemistry. 2008; 69(8):1710-1715.