Antihyperlidemic Efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Fruits Varieties on Rats Fed High-Fat Diet

Main Article Content

A. A. Nuhu
D. H. Mhya
M. K. Atiku
A. M. Wudil

Abstract

Background: Okra fruits have been found to be efficient in managing hyperlipidemia. But, there are different varieties of Okra, and whether antihyperlipidemic efficiency varies with the varieties has not been reported.

Aim of the Study: The aim of the study was to validate antihyperlipidemic efficiencies of some Okra fruits varieties on rats fed high-fat diet.

Methods: The five varieties of okra fruit was each sliced, air dried and pulverized into powder then extracted with methanol (80%) using Soxhlet extractor and concentrated at 30C in a rotary evaporator then finally air dried. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, and proximate analysis were conducted on the extracts. Hyperlipidemia was induce by feeding rats with high-fat diet for 35 days, followed by treating with two selected Okra fruit varieties (NHB-AI-B and Yar kolon)  which has the highest extract yield and phytochemicals for 21 days. Nine groups of five rats was used: groups 1-3 (hyperlipidemic rats received NHB-AI-B Okra fruit extract at different doses), group 4-6 (hyperlipidemic rats received Yar kolon Okra fruit extract at different doses), group 7 (positive control rats treated with 10mg/kg Atorvastatin), group 8 (normal control rats fed basal diet) and group 9 (negative control). Serum lipid profile were determined from each rat.

Results: The study confirmed the presence of some important phytochemicals like saponins, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids, fibre etc but differs in concentrations among the varieties where Yar kolon variety emerge highest in almost all the chemical compounds. Rat fed high-fat diet for 35 days developed hyperlipidemia as evident by the elevated triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C, body weight and supressed HDL-C. When treated with extracts of NHB-AI-B and Yar kolon Okra fruits varieties, the altered lipid profile were significantly reversed toward normalcy with Yar kolon variety exerting the most efficient activity.

Conclusion: The study showed the five Okra fruit varieties possess same chemical compounds but differs in concentrations among varieties. The extracts of Okra fruits varieties exert significant antihyperlipidemic effect but in varied degrees suggesting variations in their efficiency. This, therefore calls for further study to compare more Okra varieties to determine which one is the most potent and its active agent.

Keywords:
Antihyperlidemic, fruits, high-fat diet, NHB-AI-B, okra, rats, varieties, Yar kolon.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nuhu, A. A., Mhya, D. H., Atiku, M. K., & Wudil, A. M. (2020). Antihyperlidemic Efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Fruits Varieties on Rats Fed High-Fat Diet. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 23(7), 40-52. https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i730174
Section
Original Research Article

References

Cojocaru E, Mastaleru A, Tamba B, Vasile R, Tudor RC, Leon MM, et al. Overview of some risk factors in cardiovascular disease, recent trends in cardiovascular risks. Arun Kumar, Intechopen; 2017.

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69039

British National Formulary. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; 2017.

Buettner R, Scholmerich J, Bollheimer LC. High fat diets: Modeling the metabolic disorders of human obesity in rodents. Obesity. 2007;15:798–808.

DOI: 10.1038/oby.2007.608

Al-Awadi JHH, Rashid KH, Hassen AJ. High fat diet induce hyperlipidemia incidences with severe changes in liver tissue of male albino rats: A histological and biochemical study. Kerbala Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;6:21-32.

Bradley-Hillgartner F, Salati LM, Goodridge G. Physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in nutritional regulation of fatty acid synthesis. Physiol. Rev. 1995;75:47-76.

Spady DK, Dietschy JM. Dietary saturated triacylglycerols suppress hepatic lowdensity lipoprotein receptor activity in the hamster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 1985;82(13):4526-4530.

Arner P, Wahrenberg H, Lonnqvist F, Angelin B. Adipocyte ß2-adrenoceptor sensitivity influences plasma lipid levels. Arterioscler. Thromb. 1993;13:967-972.

Benchasri S. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) as a Valuable Vegetable of the World. Ratar. Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, 2012;49:105-112.

DOI: 10.5937/ratpov49-1172

Gosslau A, Chen KY. Nutraceuticals, apoptosis and disease prevention. Nutrition, 2004;20(1):95-102.

DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2003.09.017

Ngoc TH, Van AT, Phung NV. Hypolipidemic effect of extracts from Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Malvaceae) on tyloxapol- induced hyperlipidemia in mice. Journal of Mahidol University of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2008;35:42-46.

DOI: 10.3390/ecsoc-13-00216

Messing J, Thöle C, Niehues M, Shevtsova A, Glocker E, Hensel A. Antiadhesive properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) immature fruit extract against Helicobacter pylori adhesion. PLoS One. 2014;9(1): 84836.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084836

Sabitha V, Ramachandran S, Naveen KR, Panneerselvam K. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Bioalled Sci. 2011;3(3):397-402.

DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.84447

Mohammed IG, Osipitan AA, Atayee M. Evaluation of 15 varieties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench to field infestation by flea beetles (Podagrica spp). African Entomology. 2013;21(1):70-78.

DOI: 10.4001/003.021.0120

NIH. The principles of laboratory animal care. NIH Publication No. 85-23 Revised, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD., USA; 1985.

Zimmermann M. Ethical guidelines for investigation of experimental pain in conscious animals. pain. 1980;19:109-110.

DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(83)90201-4

Doreddula SK, Bonam SR, Gaddam DP, Desu BS, Ramarao N, Pandy V. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities of aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in mice. Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014:519848.

DOI: 10.1155/2014/519848

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Arlington, VA, USA. 15th edition; 1990.

Meda A, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma OG. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and praline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chemistry. 2005;91:571-577.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.10.006

Singleton VL, Orthofor R, Lamuel-Ranevtos RM. Analysis of total phenol and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-ciocalteauls reagent. Met. Enzymology. 1999;299:152-157.

Available:https;//doi.org/10.1016/soo76-6879(99)99017-1

Polshettiwar SA, Ganjiwale RO, Wadher SJ, Yeole PG. Spectophotometric estimation of total tannins in some Ayurvedic eye drops. Indian J Pharm Sci 2007;69:574-6.

DOI: 10.4103/0250-474x.36949

Baccou JC, Lambert F, Sauvaire Y. Spectrophotometric method for the determination of total steroidal sapogenin. Analyst. 1977;102:458–465.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC. MD, USA Association of Analytical Communities. 17th edition; 2000.

Karam I, Ma N, Yang YJ, Li YJ. Induce hyperlipidemic in rats using high fat diet investigating blood lipid and histology. J Hematol Bloo Disord. 2018;4(1):104.

DOI: 10.15744/2455-7641.4.104

Karam I, Ma N, Liu X, Yang YJ. Regulation effect of aspirin eugenol ester on blood lipids in wistar rats with hyperlipidemia. BMC Vet Res. 2015;11:217.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-015-0523-5

Fossati P, Prencipe L. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin. Chem. 1982;28:2077-2080.

Roeschlau P, Bernt E, Gruber W. Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in serum. Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 1974;12:226-226.

Lopes-Virella, MF, Stone P, Ellis S, Colwell JA. Cholesterol determination in high-density lipoproteins separated by three different methods. Clin. Chem. 1977; 23:882-884.

Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifug. Clin. Chem. 1972;18:499-502.

Smith GD, Song F, Shedon TA. Cholesterol lowering and mortality: The importance of considering initial level of risk. BMJ. 1993;306:1367-1373.

DOI: 10.1136/bmj.306.6889.1367

Dixit P, Mittal S. Importance of herbal anti-hyperlipidemics in cardiac disorders and hyperglycemia. Journal of drug delivery and therapeutics. 2013;3(4):142-150.

Available:https://org/10.22270/jddt.v3i4.542

Kumar DS, David B, Harani A, Vijay B. Role of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea L. on high-fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Scientia Pharm. 2014;82:393-409.

DOI: 10.3797/scipharm.1308-08

Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW, Bender D, Botham KM. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry. 28th edition, McGraw Hill Professional; 2009.

Sugiyama T, Tsugawa Y, Tseng CH, Kobayashi Y, Shapiro MF. Different time trends of caloric and fat intake between statin-users and non-users among US adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(7): 1038-45.

DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.1927

Esan AM, Olaiya, C, Sameer V, Elango K, Dhanabal SP. Antihyperlipidemic and glucose lowering effect of extract of bioregulator treated Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) fruits in triton-induced hyperlipidemia rats. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2017; 12:39-50.

DOI: 10.9700/3008-1204023950

Djamil R, Deni R, Zaidan S, Maya NL. Anticholesterol activity of okra fruit extract (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) and its nanoemulsion in vivo, Pharmacogn J. 2020;12(2):316-320.

DOI : 10.5530/pj.2020.12.50

Dubey P, Mishara S. Effect of okra seed in reduction of cholesterol. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2017; 5(4):94-7.

E-ISSN:2320-7078

Abumrad, NA, Davidson NO. Role of the gut in lipid homeostasis. Physiol Rev. 2012;92:1061–1085.

DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00019.2011

Borate AR, Suralkar AA., Birje SS, Malusare PV, Bangale PA. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of protocatechuic acid in fructose induced hyperlipidemia in rats,” International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2011;2(4):456–460.

Kelley GL, Allan G, Azhar S. High dietary fructose induces a hepatic stress response resulting in cholesterol and lipid dysregulation. Endocrinology. 2004; 145(2):548–555.

DOI: 10.1210/en.2003-1167

Osorio-Esquivel O, Ortiz-Moreno A, Garduno-Siciliano L, Alvarez VB, Hernanadez-Naavarro M. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012;67:365-370.

DOI: 10.1007/s11130-012-0320-2

Kumar S, Rai H, Kapoor A, Tewari S, Sinha N. Pharmacological measures to increase HDL-C among high risk isolated low HDL cases: A randomized study amongs Indians. Indian J Med res. 2013; 1138(6):873-881.

PMCID: PMC3978975

Sanlier N, Yabanci N. Relationship between body mass index, lipids and homocysteine levels in university students. J Pak Med Assoc. 2007;57:491-495.

Erfani Majd N, Azizian H, Tabandeh MR, Shahriari A. Effect of Abelmoschus esculentus powder on ovarian histology, expression of apoptotic genes and oxidative stress in diabetic rats fed with high-fat diet. Iran J Pharm Res. 2019;1 8(1):369-382.

PMID: 31089371; PMCID: PMC6487426.