Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles, Characterization and Their Applications

Main Article Content

Swathi Pavithran
Manikantan Pappuswamy
Yamuna Annadurai
Vijaya Anand Armugam
Thirunavukkarasu Periyaswamy


Nanotechnology is one of the upcoming topics in the present era. Nanoparticles are synthesized by physical and chemical methods but limitations are due to their toxicity. Hence, green synthesis is more on demand which involves the use of plants, bacteria and fungi. In this review, copper nanoparticle synthesis is focused which is economically beneficial and eco-friendly when compared to other metal nanoparticles. Copper nanoparticles are used in diverse fields such as biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, bioremediation, molecular biology, bioengineering, genetic engineering, dye degradation, catalysis, cosmetics and textiles. Structural properties and biological effects of copper nanoparticles have promising affectivity in the field of life sciences. The characterization of biogenic copper nanoparticles by number of analytical tools for their compositional, morphological and topographical features has also been discussed.

Nanoparticle synthesis, copper nanoparticles, green synthesis, antimicrobial activity, anti-cancerous activity, characterization

Article Details

How to Cite
Pavithran, S., Pappuswamy, M., Annadurai, Y., Armugam, V. A., & Periyaswamy, T. (2020). Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles, Characterization and Their Applications. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 23(7), 10-24.
Review Article


Lewis Oscar F, Vismaya S, Arunkumar M, Thajuddin N, Dhanasekaran D, Nithya C. Algal Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Biotechnological Potentials. In: Thajuddin N, Dhanasekaran D, editors. Algae - Organisms for Imminent Biotechnology [Internet]. InTech; 2016.

[cited 2020 Jun 14].


TCP, Sharma SK, Kennedy M. Nanoparticles in household level water treatment: An overview. Separation and Purification Technology. 2018;199:260–70.

Mohamed Bechir Ben Hamida, Jalel Belghaieb, Nejib Hajji. Heat and mass transfer enhancement for falling film absorption process in vertical plate absorber by adding Copper nanoparticles, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 2018;43(9):4991-5001.

Ben Hamida MB, Belghaieb J, Hajji N. Numerical study of heat and mass transfer enhancement for bubble absorption process of ammonia-water mixture without and with nanofluids. Thermal Science. 2018;22(6):3107-3120.

Paper 3: Massoudi MD, Ben Hamida MB, Mohammed HA, Almeshaal MA. MHD Heat Transfer in W-Shaped Inclined Cavity Containing a Porous Medium Saturated with Ag/Al2O3 Hybrid Nanofluid in the Presence of Uniform Heat Generation/ Absorption. Energies. 2020;13(13):3457.

Sajid M, Płotka-Wasylka J. Nanoparticles: Synthesis, characteristics, and applications in analytical and other sciences. Microchemical Journal. 2020;154:104623.

Jabli M, Al-Ghamdi YO, Sebeia N, Almalki SG, Alturaiki W, Khaled JM, et al. Green synthesis of colloid metal oxide nanoparticles using Cynomorium coccineum: Application for printing cotton and evaluation of the antimicrobial activities. Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2020;249:123171.

Alshammari A, Kalevaru VN, Martin A. Metal Nanoparticles as Emerging Green Catalysts. In: Larramendy ML, Soloneski S, editors. Green Nanotechnology - Overview and Further Prospects [Internet]. InTech; 2016.

[Cited 2020 Jun 14]


Abdolhoseinzadeh A, Sheibani S. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of Cu2O nano-photocatalyst powder modified by ball milling and ZnO. Advanced Powder Technology. 2020; 31(1):40–50.

Lozhkomoev AS, Kazantsev SO, Pervikov AV, Fomenko AN, Gotman I. New approach to production of antimicrobial Al2O3-Ag nanocomposites by electrical explosion of two wires. Materials Research Bulletin. 2019;119:110545.

Blosi M, Albonetti S, Dondi M, Martelli C, Baldi G. Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of Cu nanoparticles. J Nanopart Res. 2011;13(1):127–38.

Khodashenas B, Ghorbani HR. Synthesis of copper nanoparticles : An overview of the various methods. Korean J Chem Eng. 2014;31(7):1105–9.

Mohamed Bechir Ben Hamida, Charrada K. Natural Convection Heat Transfer in an Enclosure Filled with an Ethylene Glycol-Copper Nanofluid Under Magnetic Fields, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology, 2014;67: 902–920.

Ahmed Kadhim Hussein MAY. Bakier Mohamed Bechir Ben Hamida, Sivasankaran S. Magneto-hydrodynamic natural convection in an inclined T-shaped enclosure for different nanofluids and subjected to a uniform heat source, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 2016;55: 2157-2169.

Paper 10: Mohamed Bechir Ben Hamida and Charrada K. Heat generation/ absorption effect on natural convection heat transfer in a square enclosure filled with a ethylene glycol - copper nanofluid under magnetic field. American Journal of Modern Energy, 2015; 1 (1):1-16.

Biswas A, Bayer IS, Biris AS, Wang T, Dervishi E, Faupel F. Advances in top–down and bottom–up surface nanofabrication: Techniques, applications & future prospects. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 2012;170(1–2):2–27.

Mohamed EA. Green synthesis of copper & copper oxide nanoparticles using the extract of seedless dates. Heliyon. 2020; 6(1):03123.

Liu Q, Zhou D, Yamamoto Y, Ichino R, Okido M. Preparation of Cu nanoparticles with NaBH4 by aqueous reduction method. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 2012;22(1):117–23.

Begletsova N, Selifonova E, Chumakov A, Al-Alwani A, Zakharevich A, Chernova R, et al. Chemical synthesis of copper nanoparticles in aqueous solutions in the presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2018;552:75–80.

Seetha J, Mallavarapu U mahesh, Akepogu P, Mesa A, Gollapudi VR, Natarajan H, et al. Biosynthesis and study of bimetallic copper and silver nanoparticles on cellulose cotton fabrics using Moringa oliefiera leaf extraction as reductant. Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry. 2020;10:1–8.

Thiruvengadam M, Chung I-M, Gomathi T, Ansari MA, Gopiesh Khanna V, Babu V, et al. Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological potential of green synthesized copper nanoparticles. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2019;42(11): 1769–77.

Nayantara Kaur P. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles using eco-friendly factories and their role in plant pathogenicity: a review. Biotechnology Research and Innovation. 2018;2(1):63–73.

Chandra H, Kumari P, Bontempi E, Yadav S. Medicinal plants: Treasure trove for green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and their biomedical applications. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2020;24:101518.

Nath D, Banerjee P. Green nanotechnology – A new hope for medical biology. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2013;36(3):997–1014.

Rajeshkumar S, Menon S, Venkat Kumar S, Tambuwala MM, Bakshi HA, Mehta M, et al. Antibacterial and antioxidant potential of biosynthesized copper nanoparticles mediated through Cissus arnotiana plant extract. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2019;197:111531.

Vidovix TB, Quesada HB, Januário EFD, Bergamasco R, Vieira AMS. Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Punica granatum leaf extract applied to the removal of methylene blue. Materials Letters. 2019;257:126685.

Kaur P, Thakur R, Chaudhury A. Biogenesis of copper nanoparticles using peel extract of Punica granatum and their antimicrobial activity against opportunistic pathogens. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews. 2016;9(1):33–8.

Zangeneh MM, Ghaneialvar H, Akbaribazm M, Ghanimatdan M, Abbasi N, Goorani S, et al. Novel synthesis of Falcaria vulgaris leaf extract conjugated copper nanoparticles with potent cytotoxicity, antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, and cutaneous wound healing activities under in vitro and in vivo condition. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2019;197: 111556.

Chand Mali S, Raj S, Trivedi R. Biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Enicostemma axillare (Lam.) leaf extract. Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports. 2019;20:100699.

Sasidharan D, Namitha TR, Johnson SP, Jose V, Mathew P. Synthesis of silver and copper oxide nanoparticles using Myristica fragrans fruit extract: Antimicrobial and catalytic applications. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy. 2020;16: 100255.

Devipriya D, Roopan SM. Cissus quadrangularis mediated ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles and its antifungal studies against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2017;80:38–44.

Patel BH, Channiwala MZ, Chaudhari SB, Mandot AA. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles; its characterization and efficacy against human pathogenic bacterium. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2016;4(2):2163– 9.

Rajeshkumar S, Rinitha G. Nanostructural characterization of antimicrobial and antioxidant copper nanoparticles synthesized using novel Persea americana seeds. OpenNano. 2018;3:18–27.

Sriramulu M, Shanmugam S, Ponnusamy VK. Agaricus bisporus mediated biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles and its biological effects: An In-vitro study. Colloid and Interface Science Communications. 2020;35: 100254.

Roy K, Ghosh CK, Sarkar CK. Degradation of toxic textile dyes and detection of hazardous Hg 2+ by low-cost bioengineered copper nanoparticles synthesized using Impatiens balsamina leaf extract. Materials Research Bulletin. 2017;94:257–62.

Rosbero TMS, Camacho DH. Green preparation and characterization of tentacle-like silver/copper nanoparticles for catalytic degradation of toxic chlorpyrifos in water. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2017;5(3):2524–32.

Reddy KR. Green synthesis, morphological and optical studies of CuO nanoparticles. Journal of Molecular Structure. 2017;1150: 553–7.

Rehana D, Mahendiran D, Kumar RS, Rahiman AK. Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer activity of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized using medicinally important plant extracts. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2017;89: 1067–77.

Singh A, Singh NB, Hussain I, Singh H. Effect of biologically synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles on metabolism and antioxidant activity to the crop plants Solanum lycopersicum and Brassica oleracea var. botrytis. Journal of Biotechnology. 2017;262:11–27.

Shiravand S, Mahmoudvand H, Ebrahimi K. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa fruit and investigation of its antibacterial activity. mpj. 2017;21(4): 866–71.

Shende S, Ingle AP, Gade A, Rai M. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015;31(6):865–73.

Rajesh KM, Ajitha B, Reddy YAK, Suneetha Y, Reddy PS. Assisted green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Syzygium aromaticum bud extract: Physical, optical and antimicrobial properties. Optik. 2018;154:593–600.

Sharma P, Pant S, Poonia P, Kumari S, Dave V, Sharma S. Green Synthesis of Colloidal Copper Nanoparticles Capped with Tinospora cordifolia and its application in catalytic degradation in textile dye: An ecologically sound approach. J Inorg Organomet Polym. 2018;28(6):2463–72.

Kumar PPNV, Shameem U, Kollu P, Kalyani RL, Pammi SVN. Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Aloe vera Leaf Extract and Its Antibacterial Activity Against Fish Bacterial Pathogens. BioNanoSci. 2015;5(3):135–9.

Lee H-J, Song JY, Kim BS. Biological synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Magnolia kobus leaf extract and their antibacterial activity: Biological synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Magnolia kobus leaf extract. J Chem Technol Biotechnol; 2013.

AHER HR. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using syzygium cumin, leaf extract, characterization and antimicrobial activity. Chem Sci Trans [Internet]. 2019; 8(1).

[Cited 2020 Jun 14]


Khani R, Roostaei B, Bagherzade G, Moudi M. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by fruit extract of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd.: Application for adsorption of triphenyl-methane dye and antibacterial assay. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2018;255: 541–9.

Prakash S, Elavarasan N, Venkatesan A, Subashini K, Sowndharya M, Sujatha V. Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles and its effective applications in Biginelli reaction, BTB photodegradation and antibacterial activity. Advanced Powder Technology. 2018;9(12):3315–26.

Tovar-Corona A, Lobo-Sánchez MA, Herrera-Perez JL, Zanella R, Rodriguez-Mora JI, Vázquez-Cuchillo O. Green synthesis of copper (0) nanoparticles with cyanidine-O-3-glucoside and its strong antimicrobial activity. Materials Letters. 2018;211:266–9.

Muhammad Asif Asghar, Erum Zahir, Syed Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Naseem Khan, Muhammad Arif Asghar, Javed Iqbal, et al. Iron, copper and silver nanoparticles: Green synthesis using green and black tea leaves extracts and evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and aflatoxin B1 adsorption activity. LWT. 2018;90:98–107.

Mukhopadhyay R, Kazi J, Debnath MC. Synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles stabilized with Quisqualis indica extract: Evaluation of its cytotoxicity and apoptosis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018;97: 1373–85.

Udayabhanu, Nethravathi PC, Pavan Kumar MA, Suresh D, Lingaraju K, Rajanaika H, et al. Tinospora cordifolia mediated facile green synthesis of cupric oxide nanoparticles and their photocatalytic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing. 2015;33:81–8.

Bhavyasree PG, Xavier TS. Green synthesis of Copper Oxide/Carbon nanocomposites using the leaf extract of Adhatoda vasica Nees, their characterization and antimicrobial activity. Heliyon. 2020;6(2):03323.

Suresh S, Ilakiya R, Kalaiyan G, Thambidurai S, Kannan P, Prabu KM, et al. Green synthesis of copper oxide nanostructures using Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus grass extracts for antibacterial applications. Ceramics International. 2020;46(8):12525–37.

Kalaiyan G, Suresh S, Thambidurai S, Prabu KM, Kumar SK, Pugazhenthiran N, et al. Green synthesis of hierarchical copper oxide microleaf bundles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract for antibacterial application. Journal of Molecular Structure. 2020;1217:128379.

Bhagat DS, Suryawanshi IV, Gurnule WB, Sawant SS, Chavan PB. Greener synthesis of CuO nanoparticles for enhanced development of latent fingerprints. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2020;2214785320339365.

Varghese B, Kurian M, Krishna S, Athira TS. Biochemical synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Zingiber officinalis and Curcuma longa: Characterization and antibacterial activity study. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2020;25:302–6.

Rafique M, Shafiq F, Ali Gillani SS, Shakil M, Tahir MB, Sadaf I. Eco-friendly green and biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Citrofortunella microcarpa leaves extract for efficient photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamin B dye form textile wastewater. Optik. 2020; 208:164053.

Jayarambabu N, Akshaykranth A, Venkatappa Rao T, Venkateswara Rao K, Rakesh Kumar R. Green synthesis of Cu nanoparticles using Curcuma longa extract and their application in antimicrobial activity. Materials Letters. 2020;259: 126813.

Jabli M, Al-Ghamdi YO, Sebeia N, Almalki SG, Alturaiki W, Khaled JM, et al. Green synthesis of colloid metal oxide nanoparticles using Cynomorium coccineum: Application for printing cotton and evaluation of the antimicrobial activities. Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2020;249:123171.

Sebeia N, Jabli M, Ghith A. Biological synthesis of copper nanoparticles, using Nerium oleander leaves extract: Characterization and study of their interaction with organic dyes. Inorganic Chemistry Communications. 2019;105:36–46.

Sharma JK, Akhtar MS, Ameen S, Srivastava P, Singh G. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles with leaf extract of Calotropis gigantea and its dye-sensitized solar cells applications. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2015;632:321–5.

Zou X, Cheng S, You B, Yang C. Bio-mediated synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Pogestemon benghalensis extract for treatment of the esophageal cancer in nursing care. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020;58:101759.

Pakzad K, Alinezhad H, Nasrollahzadeh M. Green synthesis of [email protected] and CuO nanoparticles using Euphorbia maculata extract as photocatalysts for the degradation of organic pollutants under UV-irradiation. Ceramics International. 2019;45(14):17173–82.

Usman M, Ahmed A, Yu B, Peng Q, Shen Y, Cong H. Photocatalytic potential of bio-engineered copper nanoparticles synthesized from Ficus carica extract for the degradation of toxic organic dye from waste water: Growth mechanism and study of parameter affecting the degradation performance. Materials Research Bulletin. 2019;120:110583.

Nwanya AC, Razanamahandry LC, Bashir AKH, Ikpo CO, Nwanya SC, Botha S, et al. Industrial textile effluent treatment and antibacterial effectiveness of Zea mays L. Dry husk mediated bio-synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2019;375: 281–9.

Angeline Mary AP, Thaminum Ansari A, Subramanian R. Sugarcane juice mediated synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles, characterization and their antibacterial activity. Journal of King Saud University - Science. 2019;31(4):1103–14.

Sankar R, Manikandan P, Malarvizhi V, Fathima T, Shivashangari KS, Ravikumar V. Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectros-copy. 2014;121:746–50.

Mahmoudvand H, Khaksarian M, Ebrahimi K, Shiravand S, Jahanbakhsh S, Niazi M, et al. Antinociceptive effects of green synthesized copper nanoparticles alone or in combination with morphine. Annals of Medicine and Surgery. 2020;51: 31–6.

Sankar R, Maheswari R, Karthik S, Shivashangari KS, Ravikumar V. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2014;44:234–9.

Sivaraj R, Rahman PKSM, Rajiv P, Narendhran S, Venckatesh R. Biosynthesis and characterization of Acalypha indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles and evaluation of its antimicrobial and anticancer activity. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2014;129: 255–8.

Vasantharaj S, Sathiyavimal S, Saravanan M, Senthilkumar P, Gnanasekaran K, Shanmugavel M, et al. Synthesis of ecofriendly copper oxide nanoparticles for fabrication over textile fabrics: Characterization of antibacterial activity and dye degradation potential. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2019;191:143–9.

Salunke BK, Sawant SS, Lee S-I, Kim BS. Microorganisms as efficient biosystem for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles: current scenario and future possibilities. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;32(5): 88.

Issazadeh K, Jahanpour N, Pourghorbanali F, Raeisi G, Faekhondeh J. Heavy metals resistance by bacterial strains. 2013;4.

Varshney R, Bhadauria S, Gaur MS, Pasricha R. Characterization of copper nanoparticles synthesized by a novel microbiological method. JOM. 2010;62(12): 102–4.

Din MI, Rehan R. Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications of Copper Nanoparticles. Analytical Letters. 2017;50(1):50–62.

Noman M, Shahid M, Ahmed T, Niazi MBK, Hussain S, Song F, et al. Use of biogenic copper nanoparticles synthesized from a native Escherichia sp. as photocatalysts for azo dye degradation and treatment of textile effluents. Environmental Pollution. 2020 ;257: 113514.

Noor S, Shah Z, Javed A, Ali A, Hussain SB, Zafar S, et al. A fungal based synthesis method for copper nanoparticles with the determination of anticancer, antidiabetic and antibacterial activities. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2020; 174:105966.

Honary S, Barabadi H, Gharaei E, Naghibi F. Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium waksmanii. 2012;7.

Salvadori MR, Ando RA, Oller Do Nascimento CA, Corrêa B. Bioremediation from wastewater and extracellular synthesis of copper nanoparticles by the fungus Trichoderma koningiopsis. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 2014;49(11):1286–95.

Bhattacharya P, Swarnakar S, Ghosh S, Majumdar S, Banerjee S. Disinfection of drinking water via algae mediated green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles and its toxicity evaluation. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2019;7(1):102867.

Ramaswamy SVP, Narendhran S, Sivaraj R. Potentiating effect of ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using brown alga: Antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Bull Mater Sci. 2016; 39(2):361–4.

Vishveshvar K, Aravind Krishnan MV, Haribabu K, Vishnuprasad S. Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Ixiro coccinea Plant Leaves and its Characterization. BioNanoSci. 2018;8(2): 554–8.

Sun L, Chen P, Lin L. Enhanced Molecular Spectroscopy via Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance. In: Stauffer MT, editor. Applications of Molecular Spectroscopy to Current Research in the Chemical and Biological Sciences [Internet]. InTech; 2016.

[Cited 2020 Jun 14].


Nasrollahzadeh M, Momeni SS, Sajadi SM. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Plantago asiatica leaf extract and their application for the cyanation of aldehydes using K4Fe(CN)6. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2017;506:471–7.

Bordbar M, Sharifi-Zarchi Z, Khodadadi B. Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles/clinoptilolite using Rheum palmatum L. root extract: High catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitro phenol, rhodamine B, and methylene blue. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol. 2017;81(3):724–33.

Hargreaves JSJ. Some considerations related to the use of the Scherrer equation in powder X-ray diffraction as applied to heterogeneous catalysts. Catalysis, Structure & Reactivity. 2016;2(1–4):33–7.

Hasheminya S-M, Dehghannya J. Green synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles using Eryngium caucasicum Trautv aqueous extracts and its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Particulate Science and Technology. 2019;1–8.

Yugandhar P, Vasavi T, Jayavardhana Rao Y, Uma Maheswari Devi P, Narasimha G, Savithramma N. Cost Effective, Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Fruit Extract of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp., Characterization and Evaluation of Antiviral Activity. J Clust Sci. 2018;29(4):743–55.

Wisam J. Aziz, Muslim A. Abid, Emad H. Hussein. Biosynthesis of CuO nanoparticles and synergistic antibacterial activity using mint leaf extract. Materials Technology. 2020;35(8):447–51.

Naika HR, Lingaraju K, Manjunath K, Kumar D, Nagaraju G, Suresh D, et al. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles using Gloriosa superba L. extract and their antibacterial activity. Journal of Taibah University for Science. 2015;9(1):7–12.

Ismail MIM. Green synthesis and characterizations of copper nanoparticles. Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2020; 240:122283.

Wang S, Su R, Nie S, Sun M, Zhang J, Wu D, et al. Application of nanotechnology in improving bioavailability and bioactivity of diet-derived phytochemicals. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2014; 25(4):363–76.

Bhatia S. Nanoparticles types, classification, characterization, fabrication methods and drug delivery applications. In: Natural Polymer Drug Delivery Systems [Internet]. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 2016;33–93.

[cited 2020 Jun 14].


Nagajyothi PC, Muthuraman P, Sreekanth TVM, Kim DH, Shim J. Green synthesis: In-vitro anticancer activity of copper oxide nanoparticles against human cervical carcinoma cells. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2017 Feb;10(2):215–25.

Prasad PR, Kanchi S, Naidoo EB. In-vitro evaluation of copper nanoparticles cytotoxicity on prostate cancer cell lines and their antioxidant, sensing and catalytic activity: One-pot green approach. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2016;161:375–82.

Gnanavel V, Palanichamy V, Roopan SM. Biosynthesis and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles and its anticancer activity on human colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116). Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2017;171:133–8.

Ingle AP, Duran N, Rai M. Bioactivity, mechanism of action, and cytotoxicity of copper-based nanoparticles: A review. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;98(3): 1001–9.

Saravanakumar K, Sathiyaseelan A, Mariadoss AVA, Xiaowen H, Wang M-H. Physical and bioactivities of biopolymeric films incorporated with cellulose, sodium alginate and copper oxide nanoparticles for food packaging application. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2020;153:207–14.

Copper nanoparticles could protect food from bacteria [Internet]. Science Daily; 2013.

Available: Accessed 14 June 2020.

Singh J, Kumar V, Kim K-H, Rawat M. Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using plant extract and its prodigious potential for photocatalytic degradation of dyes. Environmental Research. 2019;177:108569.

Sinha T, Ahmaruzzaman M. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles for the efficient removal (degradation) of dye from aqueous phase. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2015;22(24):20092–100.

Sebeia N, Jabli M, Ghith A, Saleh TA. Eco-friendly synthesis of Cynomorium coccineum extract for controlled production of copper nanoparticles for sorption of methylene blue dye. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2020;13(2): 4263–74.