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Aim: Dissotis rotundifolia were selected after an ethnopharmacological survey conducted on plants used traditionally for malaria treatment in South Benin, with the aim of discovering new natural active extracts against malaria parasites.
Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Bioactive Natural Substances, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin)/ Laboratory of Infectious Vector Borne Diseases, Regional Institute of Public Health (Benin)/ Laboratoire d’Histologie, de Cytogénétique et d’Embryologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé (Benin). The study was conduct from October 2018 to June 2019 in Benin.
Methodology: The antiplasmodial activity of the plant extracts was evaluated using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) immunodetection assay. The extract with the best antiplasmodial activity were used on Wistar rats for acute toxicity.
Results: Ethanolic extract of Dissotis rotundifolia showed promising activity (Isolate: IC50 = 22.58 ± 1.12 µg/mL; 3D7: IC50 = 6.81 ± 0.85 µg/mL) on Plasmodium falciparum compared to the aqueous extract (Isolate: IC50 > 100 µg/mL; 3D7: IC50> 100 µg/mL). The aqueous fraction of D. rotundifolia exhibit highly potent activity against P. falciparum strain (Isolate: IC50 > 100 µg/mL μg/mL; 3D7: IC50 = 4.05 ± 0.72 μg/mL). Haemolytic effect of actives extracts and fractions is less than 5%. Ethanolic extract of D. rotundifolia revealed no obvious acute toxicity in rat up to the highest dose administered (2000 mg/kg).
Conclusion: This study justifies traditional uses of D. rotundifolia against malaria. A bioguided fractionation of these extracts would identify molecules responsible for their antiplasmodial activity. Moreover, these results could lead to the design of improved traditional medicines in the basis of this plant.
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