Bacterial Assessment of Unpasteurized Fruit Juices Sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Constancy Prisca Aleru
Vivian Nkemkanma Agi
Kingsley Njoku


This study assessed the bacterial quality of fresh fruit juices sold in some restaurants in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. A total of twenty (20) fruit juice samples were collected from four (4) different types of fruit juices sold at four (4) different restaurants. The fruits that were used for this study are: Orange, Watermelon, Pineapple and Tiger nuts. Samples of the fruit juices were collected for bacteriological assessment using heterotrophic plate count and most probable number techniques, while CHRO Magar for E. coli and other coliforms was used for the detection of E. coli. The results showed that E. coli, Bacillus spp, Klebsiella spp, Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp were present in the fruit juices. The results of the heterotrophic plate count showed that the bacterial count ranged from 2.7 x 102 (Orange) to 7.1 x 103 (Tiger nuts), while the results of the total coliform count ranged from 11 MPN/100 ml to 28 MPN/100 ml. However, the study revealed that the total E. coli count ranged from 0 to 7. The number of E. coli in each of the fruit juices and restaurants ranged from 6 to 13, Bacillus spp 12 to 19, Klebsiella spp 4 to 10, Streptococcus spp 6 to 11 and Staphylococcus spp 4 to 13. Bacillus spp had the highest percentage (31.4%), followed by Staphylococcus spp (20.1%). The highest percentage of bacteria was recovered from Tiger nuts (29.4%), followed by Watermelon (28.4%). Regular monitoring of the quality of fresh fruit juices sold in restaurants in Port Harcourt and other parts of Nigeria should therefore be enforced.

Fruit juices, E. coli, contamination, bacteria, hygiene, unpasteurised, restaurants, coliform

Article Details

How to Cite
Aleru, C. P., Agi, V. N., & Njoku, K. (2020). Bacterial Assessment of Unpasteurized Fruit Juices Sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 23(5), 1-7.
Original Research Article


Dunn RA, Hall WN, Altamirano JV, Dietrich SE, Robinson- Dunn B, Johnson DR. Outbreak of Shiegella flexneri linked to salad prepared at a central commissary in Michigan. Public Health Reports. 1995; 110(5):580-586.

Beuchat LR. Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raw fruit and vegetables. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:413-423.

Carmo LS, Cummings C, Linardi VR, Dias RS, Souza JM, Sena MJ, Santos DA, Shupp JW, Pereira RK, Jett M. A case study of a massive staphylococcal food poisoning incident. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 2004;1:241-246.

Nma OO, Ahaotu I, Ugbong F. Isolation and genotypic characterization of microbial contaminants in unpasteurized fresh juices sold in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Microbiology Research. 2017; 7(4):99-106.

Doyle MP, Beuchat LR, Montvilte TJ. Food microbiology. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology. ASM Press. 2001;20-90.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of Escheichia coli: 0157:H7 Infections Associated with Drinking of Unpasteurized Commercial Apple Juice. British Columbra, California, Colorado. 1996;45-975.

Cook KA, Dobbs TE, Hlady WG, Wells JG, Barrett TJ, Puhr ND, Lancette GA, Bodager DW, Toth BL, Genese CA, Highsmith AK, Pilot KE, Finelli L, Swerdlow DL. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype hartford infection associated with un-pasteurized orange juice. JAMA. 1998; 280(17):1504-9.

Oranusi US, Braide W, Nezianya J. Microbiological and chemical quality assessment of some commercially packaged fruit juices sold in Nigeria. Greener Journal of Biological Sciences. 2012;2:001-006.

Oranusi US, Braide W, Otali CC. Microbiological status of processed fruit juice sold in commercial city of Onitsha. Scholarly Journal of Biological Science. 2012;1(3):25-30.

Agwa OK, Ossai-Chidi LN, Ezeani CA. Microbial evaluation of orange fruit juice sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. American Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014;1(5):28-33.

National Institution of Industrial Technology (NIIT). Comparison of recovery of Escherichia coli thermo tolerant coliforms in water with a chromogenic medium incubated at 41°C and 44.5°C. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 2001; 65(8):37-46.

Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries: part 2. Madrid: Cambridge University Press; 2002.

Todar K. Bacterial protein toxins. Online textbook of parasitology.


[Accessed 26 2020].

Nayik GA, Amin T, Bhat S. Microbial analysis of some fruit juices available in the markets of Kashmir valley, India. Asian Jr. of Microbiol. Biotech. Env. Sc. 2013; 15(4):733-737.

United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). Pasteurisation of juice - Department of Health and Human Services. Available:

[Accessed 19 April 2020].

Iqbal1 NM, Anjum AA, Ali MA, Hussain F, Ali S, Muhammad A, Irfan M, Ahmad A, Irfan M, Shabbir A. Assessment of microbial load of un-pasteurized fruit juices and in vitro antibacterial potential of honey against bacterial isolates. The Open Microbiology Journal. 2015; 9:26-32.

Gulf Standards. Microbiological criteria for food stuff part 1. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: GCC; 2000.

Uganda National Bureau of Standard (UNBS). Uganda standard, fruit juices and nectars-specification; 2009.

Andres SC, Giannuzzi L, Zaritzky NE. The effect of temperature on microbial growth in apple cubes packed in film and preserved by use of orange juice. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2004:2(4):454-460.

Brown AC. Understanding food: Principles of preparation. 2007: Cengage Learning.

Beuchat LR. Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce. Journal of Food Protection. 1996;59:204-216.

Abdussalam M, Kafertein FK. Safety of street foods. World Health Forum Ghana. 2012;14:191-194.