Comparison of the External Morphology of Straw- coloured Fruit Bats on Different Locations on Obafemi Awolowo University Campus

Main Article Content

A. O. Bamidele
O. F. Israel

Abstract

Background of the Study: In the past few years, the presence of straw-coloured fruit bats in various parts of the University has been of a great concern to the University community. The movement of straw-coloured fruit bats from one location to another also creates concern of possible destruction of some important ecosystem features on campus.

Objective of the Study: This study compared the external morphology of straw-coloured fruit bats from three different locations on Obafemi Awolowo University campus students’ residential area, academic area and staff quarters).

Methodology: Non-lethal trap and mist nets were used in collecting the Straw-coloured fruit bats between June and December 2019. Captured specimen were transported in cages into the laboratory and chloroform was used to anesthetize the specimens before measuring the external morphometric parameters (HB, FA, HF, TIB, EL, TL, Tr, TBL and BW) with the aid of ruler and venier calliper.

Results and Conclusion: A total of 114 fruit bats (66 male and 58 female) were sampled with the use of non-lethal trap and mist nets. The mean Head body length for male specimens from the three locations were 204.6±2.1 mm, 214.6±1.2 mm and 216.6±2.6 mm and the mean body weight were 208.5±2.4, 224.6±2.1 and 254.3±2.9 g respectively. The mean Head body length of female specimens were 158.5±1.1 mm, 172.8±1.5 mm, and 186.5±2.6 mm and the mean of body weight from all the locations were 184.6±2.0, 206.5±2.1 and 232.6±2.9g. The specimens from Student hostel had the lowest external morphometric parameters values, while specimens from Staff quarters had the highest morphometric values. The PCA scatter plot showed no relationship in the morphometric parameters of all the specimens from the three locations. The PCA loading showed that HB, TIB and the BW of all the specimen had negative correlation which may be due to different factors. In conclusion, the Straw-coloured fruit Bat on OAU campus showed different external morphometry which may be due to roosting, foraging and predator.

Keywords:
Morphometry, bodyweight, tail length, ecology, roosting

Article Details

How to Cite
Bamidele, A. O., & Israel, O. F. (2020). Comparison of the External Morphology of Straw- coloured Fruit Bats on Different Locations on Obafemi Awolowo University Campus. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 23(4), 19-27. https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2020/v23i430155
Section
Original Research Article

References

Okon EE. Fruit bats at Ife: Their roosting and food preferences (Ife fruit Bat project no. 2). Nigerian field. 1974;39:33-40.

Ajibola E, Ojo O, Omoshehin T. Morphometric parameters and aspects of the feeding habits of the Straw-coloured fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) on Obafemi Awolowo University Campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. International Journal of Biology Research. 2018;3(2):188-191.

Prothero DR. The Princeton field guide to prehistoric mammals. Princeton University Press. 2016;112.

Vanthomme H, Bellé B, Forget PM. Bushmeat hunting alters recruitment of large-seeded plant species in Central Africa. Biotropica. 2010;42(6):672-679.

Agyei-Ohemeng J. Aspects of the ecology of fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) in the University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani (Doctoral disserta-tion); 2015.

Hayes MA, Adams RA. Maternity roost selection by fringed myotis in Colorado. Western North American Naturalist. 2015;75(4):460-473.

Dumont ER, Herrel A. The effects of gape angle and bite point on bite force in Bats. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2003;206(13):2117-2123.

Nowak RM, Paradiso JL. Walker's mammals of the world, Fourth ed The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 1983;1:1-568

Levin E, Roll U, Dolev A, Yom-Tov Y, Kronfeld-Shcor N. Bats of a gender flock together: sexual segregation in a subtropical Bat. PloS one. 20113;8(2).

Fahr J, Abedi-Lartey M, Esch T, Machwitz M, Suu-Ire R, Wikelski M, Dechmann DK. Pronounced seasonal changes in the movement ecology of a highly gregarious central-place forager, the African straw-coloured fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum). PloS one. 2015;10(10).

Happold DCD. The Mammals of Nigeria. Clarendon; 1987.

Rainho A, Palmeirim JM. The importance of distance to resources in the spatial modelling of Bat foraging habitat. PLoS One. 2011;6(4).

Wund M, Myers P. Chiroptera ‘(online), Animal Diversity web; 2015. Available:http://animaldiversity.ummz.ummich.edu/site/accounts/information/Chiroptera.html (Accessed March 26, 2020).

Kaňuch P, Danko Š, Celuch M, Krištín A, Pjenčák P, Matis Š, Šmídt J. Relating bat species presence to habitat features in natural forests of Slovakia (Central Europe). Mammalian Biology. 2008;73(2): 147-155.

Patterson BD, Willig MR, Stevens RD. Trophic strategies, niche partitioning and patterns of ecological organization. Bat ecology. 2003;9:536-557.

Kruskop SV. Bats of Vietnam. Checklist and an identification manual. Joint Russian-Vietnamese Sciences and Technological Tropical Centre and Zoological Museum of Moscow MV Lomonosov State University. 2013;299.

Kamins AO, Restif O, Ntiamoa-Baidu Y, Suu-Ire R, Hayman DT, Cunningham AA, Rowcliffe JM. Uncovering the fruit Bat bushmeat commodity chain and the true extent of fruit Bat hunting in Ghana, West Africa. Biological Conservation. 2011; 144(12):3000-3008.

Hayman DT, McCrea R, Restif O, Suu-Ire R, Fooks AR, Wood JL, Rowcliffe JM. Demography of straw-colored fruit Bats in Ghana. Journal of Mammalogy. 2012; 93(5):1393-1404.

Aguirre LF, Herrel A, Van Damme R, Matthysen E. The implications of food hardness for diet in Bats. Functional Ecology. 2003;17(2):201-212.

Dumont ER. The effect of food hardness on feeding behaviour in frugivorous Bats (Phyllostomidae): an experimental study. Journal of Zoology. 1999;248(2): 219-229.

Schmieder DA, Benítez HA, Borissov IM, Fruciano C. (Bat species comparisons based on external morphology: A test of traditional versus geometric morphometric approaches. PloS one. 2015;10(5).

Hayman DT, Fooks AR, Horton D, Suu-Ire R, Breed AC, Cunningham AA, Wood JL. Antibodies against Lagos Bat virus in megachiroptera from West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2008;14(6): 926.

Hayman DT, Suu-Ire R, Breed AC, McEachern JA, Wang L, Wood JL, Cunningham AA. Evidence of henipavirus infection in West African fruit Bats. PloS one. 2008;3(7).

Hayman DT, Emmerich P, Yu M, Wang LF, Suu-Ire R, Fooks AR, Wood JL. Long-term survival of an urban fruit Bat seropositive for Ebola jnand Lagos Bat viruses. PloS one. 2010;5(8).