Study of Functional Properties for Different Blends of Flours

Main Article Content

C. E. Kalu
I. C. Alaka
F. C. Ekwu


Functional properties of flour blends from water yam, yellow maize and African yam bean were investigated in this study. Standard method for dry- milling operation was used in the flour processing. Four flour samples were compounded in the ratios of (AFK) 40%WY: 30%YM: 30%AYB; (BGL) 50%WY: 20%YM: 30%AYB; (CHM) 60% WY: 10%YM: 30%AYB (DIN) and 100%WY (EJO) was used as control. Standard methods were used to determine the functional properties. The result showed that bulk density which influences packaging arrangement ranged from 0.58 to 0.76 g/ml; water solubility index ranged from 5.80 to 9.20 g/g and water absorption capacity ranged from 1.00 to 1.46 g/g, the oil absorption capacity ranged from 1.44 to 2.02 g/g. Addition of yellow maize and African yam bean improved significantly (p<0.05) the functional properties of the flour blend generally and particularly flour sample (DIN) 60%WY: 10%YM: 30%AYB. The improvement in the functional properties would enhance both the nutritional and sensory properties of the flour mixtures.

Flour, water yam, yellow maize, African yam bean.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kalu, C. E., Alaka, I., & Ekwu, F. (2019). Study of Functional Properties for Different Blends of Flours. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 22(1), 1-7.
Original Research Article


Milligan ED, Amlie JH, Reyes J, Garcia A, Mayer B. Processing for production of edible soy flour. Journal American Oil Chemistry Social. 1981;58:331.

Noor Aziah AA, Komathi CA. Acceptability attributes of crackers made from different types of composite flour. International Food Research Journal.2009;16:479-482.

Abddelghafor RF, Mustafa AI Ibrahim, AMH, Krishman PG. Quality of bread from composite flour of sorghum and had white winter wheat. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2011;3:9-15.

Babu AS, Parimaravalli. Functional and chemical properties of starch isolated from tubers international. Journal of Agricultural and Food Science; 2012.
ISSN 2249-8516

Diop PH. Storage and processing of roots and tuber in thetropics, Calverley;1998.

Shittu T, Raji, AO, Sanni LO. Bread from composite cassava –wheat flour in: Effect of baking time and temperature on some physical properties of bread loaf. Food Research International. 2007;40:280–290.

National Academy of Science. Tropical legumes: Resources for the future. Washington, DC. 1979;27-32.

Okigbo BN, Duke JA, Reed CF. Sphenosrylisstenocarpa (Hochst ex A. Rich) Harms, Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin. 1977;10:4-7.

Nwokolo E. A nutritional assessment of African yam bean: Sphenosrylis steno- carpa (Hochst ex A. Rich) Harms. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1987;41:123-129.

Dendy DAV. Review of composite flour technology in the context of Tanzania, a paper presented A the workshop entitled Soghum and Millets marketing and utilization held at Acrusha, Tanzania. 1993;3-5.

Siddiq M, Maser M, Rari R, Dotan JD, Butt, Ms. Effect of defatted maize germ addition on the functional and textural properties of wheat flour. International Journal Food Properties. 2009;12:860–870.

Iwe MO, Ngoddy PO. Proximate composition and some functional properties of extrusion cooked soybean and sweet potato blends. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1998;55:159–168.

Anderson RA. Water absorption and solubility and amylograph of roll cooked small grain products. Cereal Chem. 1982; 59:265–269.

Nneoma EO, Ngozi U, Enyidiya E. Production and evaluation of biscuits from African yam bean and wheat flours. Food Science and Quality Management 2012; 7:22-29.

Egbedike CN, Ozo NO, Ikegwu OJ, Odo MO, Okoprie PA. Effect of rice bran substitution on the physicochemical properties of water yam flour. Asian Journal of Agricultural Food Science. 2016; 4:246–257.

Onwurafor EU, Onweluzo JC, Uzodinma EO. Chemical properties of ferumented maize – mungbean melt complementary foods fortified with vegetable and crayfish powder–proceedings of the 40th conference of NIFST 24th–26th October. Coronation Hall, Government House, Kano, Kano State. 2016;157.

Malomo O, Ogunmoyela OAB, Adakoyeni OO, Oluwajoba SO, Sobanwa MO. Rheological and functional properties of By-proundo yam flour. International Journal Food Science and Nutrition Eng. 2012;2(6):101-107.
DOI: 10:5923/J Food 20120206.01

Nwabueze TU, Glory A, Anoruoh GA. Evaluation of flour and extruded noodles from eight Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) Resistant Varieties Food Bioprocess Technology; 2009.

DOI: 1001007/511947-009

Adebowale AA, Sanni LO, Fadahunsi EI Functional and pasting characteristics of cassava sweet patato starch blends pro 11th ISTRC Congo. 2010;4-8.

Akpata MI, Akubo PI (1999). Chemical composition and selected functional properties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) seed flour. Plant Food Hum. Nutri. 54:353–362.

Julanti EH, Era R. Functional and rheological properties of composite flour from sweet potato, maize, soybean and anthan gum. Journal of Sandi Society of Agricultiure Sciences. 2014; 2(1):1-7.

Oke MO, Awonorin SO, Workneh TS. Effect of varieties on physiochemical and pasting characteristics of water yam flours and starches. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2013;12(11)1250–1256.

Leach H, Mc Cowen LD, Thomas S. Structure of starch granule: Swelling and solubility patterns of various starches. Cereal Chem. 1959;36:534–544.

Moorthy SN, Ramanujam T. Variation in properties of starch in cassava varieties in relation to age of the crop starch/starke. 1986;38:5861.

Padmashree TS, Vijayalakshmi L, Puttara JS. Effect of traditional processing on the functional properties of cowpea. Journal of Food Science Technology. 24:221–225.

Niba LL, Bokonga MM, Jackson EL, Schlimme DS, Li BW. Physicochemical properties and starch granular characteristics of flour from various manihotesculenta (cassava) genotyoes. Journal of Food Science. 2001;67(5):1701 –1705.

Eltayeb M, Ali AO, Abou-Arab AA, AbuSalem FM. Chemical composition and functional properties of flour and protein isolate extracted from Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), African Journal of Food Science. 2011;5:82-90.

Aremu MO, Olaofe O, Akintayo ET. Functional properties of some Nigerian varieties of legume seed flours and flour concentration effect on foaming and gelation properties. Journal of Food Technology. 2007;5(2):109-115.