Cranial and External Morphology of Male and Female Orange Headed Tree Squirrels (Funisciurus leucogenys) in Selected Locations of Savannah Forest in Nigeria

Main Article Content

A. O. Bamidele
A. I. Akinpelu

Abstract

This study examined the differences in cranial and external morphology of male and female tree squirrel species (Funisciurus leucogenys) from three different locations in Savannah vegetation zone of Nigeria. The tree squirrels were collected from contracted local hunters which identify the tree squirrel. After collection and identification to the generic level, they were transferred to the laboratory in absolute ethanol. About 183 skulls were prepared (58 male and 125 female), the skull and other body parameters were measured using digital venire calliper. The results showed that the body parameters (HBL, TL, TBL, EL, HFL, and BW) of the female specimen measured were different from male and the body parameters of the specimen from one location were slightly different from another. Also, the cranial measure showed some similarities and slight differences between male and female specimen among the locations (Asejire, Ilorin, and Ogbomosho). In conclusion, the cranial and body morphology parameters of male and female tree squirrels from the three locations (Asejire, Ilorin, and Ogbomosho) showed that despite that the tree squirrels were from different locations, they were of the same genus (F. leucogeny), which indicated that locations might not have an effect on the specimen.

Keywords:
Rodents, crania parameters, measurements, specimen, abundance

Article Details

How to Cite
Bamidele, A., & Akinpelu, A. (2019). Cranial and External Morphology of Male and Female Orange Headed Tree Squirrels (Funisciurus leucogenys) in Selected Locations of Savannah Forest in Nigeria. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 21(2), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2019/v21i230100
Section
Original Research Article

References

Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Da Fonseca GA, Kent J. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature. 2000;403(6772):853.

Musser GG, Carleton MD, Brothers EM, Gardner AL. Systematic studies of oryzo-myine rodents (Muridae, sigmodontinae): diagnoses and distributions of species formerly assigned to Oryzomys "capito". Bulletin of the AMNH. 1998;236.

Thorington RW, Thorington Jr. RW, Ferrell KE. Squirrels: The animal answer guide. JHU Press; 2006.

Steele Michael A, Koprowski JL. North American tree squirrels. Washington DC: Smithsonia Institution Press. 2001;225.

Lees AC, Zimmer KJ, Marantz CA, Whittaker A, Davis BJ, Whitney BM. Alta Floresta revisited: An updated review of the avifauna of the most intensively surveyed locality in south-central Amazonia. Bulletin of British Ornithologists Club. 2013;133(3):165-252.

Thorington RW, Hoffmann RS. Family sciuridae. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, eds. Mammal Species of the world: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 2005;754-818.

Bamidele AO, Akinpelu AI. Cranial and external morphology of tree squirrels (Heliosciurus rufobrachium) in selected locations of savannah forest in Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research. 2019;6.

Rohlf FJ, Marcus LF. A revolution in morphometrics. Trends Ecology Evolution. 1993;8:129–132.

Voss RS, Jansa SA. Phylogenetic relationships and classification of did elphid marsupials, an extant radiation of New World metatherian mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 2009;1-177.

Zelditch ML, Swiderski DL, Sheets HD. Geometric morphometrics for biologists: A primer. Academic Press; 2012.

Corti M, Di Giuliomaria C, Verheyen W. Three-dimensional geometric morpho-metrics of the African genus Lophuromys (Rodentia muridae). Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy. 2000;11(1).

Happold DCD. The mammals of Nigeria- Clarendon Press. Oxford Science Publications, New York. 1987;402.

Olayemi AOA. Taxonomic evaluation by morphometric analysis of Muroid rodents from parts of South Western Nigeria. PhD thesis submitted to the Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University. Ile-Ife, Nigeria. 2006;330.

Long Island Natural History Museum. How to Prepare Skeletal Material; 2000.
Available:http://limuseum.org/li02000.htm

Rasmussen NL, Thorington RW. Morpho-logical differentiation among three species of flying squirrels (Genus hylopetes) from Southeast Asia. Journal of Mammalogy. 2008;89(5):1296–1305.

Song LI, Fa-Hong YU, Xue-Fei LÜ. Cranial morphometric study of four giant flying squirrels (Petaurista) (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from China; 2012.

Adagunodo TA, Sunmonu LA, Oladejo OP, Hammed OS, Oyeyemi KD, Kayode OT. Site characterization of Ayetoro Housing Scheme, Oyo, Nigeria. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environ-mental Science. IOP Publishing. 2018; 173(1):012031.

Kayode J, Amoo JO, Ayeni M, Barks J. Extra vitism and healthiness of aboriginal Yoruba populace in Kwara State, Nigeria. International Journal of Biomedical Papers. 2016;1:13–20.

SAS Institute. System analysis software, version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc, Carry NC; 1997.

Palombit RA. Infanticide as sexual conflict: Coevolution of male strategies and female counter-strategies. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in Biology. 2015;7(6): a017640.

Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, Redman CL, Wu J, Bai X, Briggs JM. Global change and the ecology of cities. Science. 2008;319:756-760.

Faleh AB, Allaya H, Quignard JP, Shahin AAAB, Trabelsi M. Patterns of skull variation in relation to some geo-climatic conditions in the greater jerboa Jaculus orientalis (Rodentia, Dipodidae) from Tunisia. Turkish Journal of Zoology. 2016; 40(6):900-909.

Heldstab SA, van Schaik CP, Isler K. Getting fat or getting help? How female mammals cope with energetic constraints on reproduction. Frontiers in Zoology. 2017;14(1):29.

Wei X, Yan L, Zhao C, Zhang Y, Xu Y, Cai B, Huang Y. Geographic variation in body size and its relationship with environmental gradients in the Oriental Garden Lizard, Calotes versicolor. Ecology and Evolution. 2018;8(9):4443-4454.