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Background: Medicinal plants have been a good source of drugs for humans, but chronic and prolong use of medicinal plants like Phyllanthus amarus for the treatment of malaria and other disorders are issues of concerns. This study evaluated the effect of Phyllanthus amarus on reproductive organs and sperm parameters in albino rats.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-four healthy male albino rats of 12 weeks old were assigned into four groups with six rats in each group using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The experimental animals were orally treated with Phyllanthus amarus. Group A served as the control and was given only water and feed; Group B, C and D received 100 mg/kgBW, 200 mg/kgBW and 300 mg/kgBW of Phyllanthus amarus respectively. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The treatments lasted for a period of 65 days after two weeks of acclimatization.
Results: The results showed statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction in weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm count and sperm head abnormalities in male rats treated with Phyllanthus amarus when compared to the control. The sperm pH was not significantly (p>0.05) affected by Phyllanthus amarus among the different treatment groups in the experimental animals.
Conclusion: Findings from the present study indicate that Phyllanthus amarus possesses a dose-dependent anti-fertility activity in amale albino rats under a sub-chronic course of administration.