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Aim: Ameliorative potentials of Annona muricata (Linn) on Sodium fluoride-induced toxicity on haematology indices and fecundity of adult male Wistar rats.
Methods: Eighty-five (85) adult male Wistar rats were divided into 17 groups of 5 rats each. NaF (10 mg/kg) + fruit juice, ethanol stem bark, and leaf extracts of A. muricata at five different doses of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 mg/kg body weight were administered to the rats for 6 weeks. Blood samples were taken after 6 weeks through the ocular puncture and the sera were used for testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) tests, while whole blood was used for haematological parameters such as haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cell, platelets count, lymphocytes (%) and neutrophils (%). The testes and epididymis of the rats were harvested for histological studies and sperm analysis such as sperm motility, viability, count and sperm head abnormality.
Results: Administration of NaF + fruit juice, NaF + Stem bark and NaF + leaf extracts caused an increase (p<0.05) in epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, and live spermatozoa along with a simultaneous decrease in dead spermatozoa as compared to the rats of the group treated with NaF alone. Result also showed that treatment with doses above 500 mg/kg body weight of NaF + fruit juice, NaF + stem bark and leaf extracts produced significant increases (p<0.05) in Hb concentration and PCV when compared with group 2 rats. Similarly, groups treated with NaF + 2000 mg/kg of fruit juice and NaF + 1000 mg/kg of stem bark, and leaf extracts, showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in platelet count when compared with groups 1 and 2 rats. Histological examination showed that NaF treatment brought about severe testicular damage while treatment with the extracts ameliorated this effect.
Conclusion: A. muricata fruit juice and extracts were found to increase testosterone concentration, thus validating its ameliorative potential in NaF-induced toxicity.