Main Article Content
Aims: Diarrhoea is more common in rural area and in low-income countries like Nigeria, where children experience an average three episodes of diarrhoea every year. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Crassulaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant in a traditional system with a wide range of biological activities. Hence, In vivo antidiarrhoeal activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract on castor oil induced diarrhoea extracts was evaluated.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure in 2017.
Methodology: Lethal dose (LD50) of the ethanol extract was determined by Lorke’s method, rats were grouped and diarrhoea was induced in the experimental Albino rat using castor oil and treated with 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg per body weight.
Results: The result showed that phytochemical compositions of the extract were: tannin (25%), flavonoids (20%), saponin (17.5%), phenols (13%), glycosides (7%), coumarin (6%), titerpenoids (6.5%) and alkaloids (5%). Diarrhoeic faecal droppings reduced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in treated groups, the reduction were dose dependent. However, the highest inhibition of 93.5% was observed in the group treated with 500 mg/kg of extract. The extract also inhibited the intestinal content by 46%, 62% and 67% in the group treated with 200, 300 and 500mg/kg respectively. Also, B. pinnaatum extract (300 and 500 mg/kg) significantly (P≤0.05) reduced the gastrointestinal distance travelled by the charcoal meal in rats compared to untreated group.
Conclusion: In evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of B. pinnatum in rat, there was an improvement in faecal consistency, therefore it could be considered suitable for the treatment of non-infectious diarrhoea. Further studies should be carried out on purification and the structural elucidation of the extracts to ascertain the main bioactive component of the extract responsible for antidiarrhoeal activity.