Journal of Applied Life Sciences International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Applied Life Sciences International (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1103)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JALSI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘applied life sciences’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Applied Life Sciences International) (Journal of Applied Life Sciences International) Thu, 19 Mar 2020 12:03:36 +0000 OJS 60 Sustainable Inland and Coastal Fisheries: Key Lessons Drawn from Community-based Fisheries Management in Bangladesh <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To build an appropriate basis for inland and coastal fisheries co-management through the involvement of key government agencies, fishers, traders and relevant stakeholders.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Literature review of the community-based fisheries management projects in Bangladesh during 1995-2017 and examine fisher’s perceptions of co-management approaches from an inclusive cross-section of fishing households.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The study sites are located in six riverine districts in Bangladesh, namely Bhola, Chandpur and Laxmipur within fish sanctuary areas and Barisal, Pirojpur and Jhalokathi outside fish sanctuary areas.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study included community-based fisheries management project’s knowledge in different inland and coastal habitat types in Bangladesh. The study comprised on lessons learned from field activities, workshops on fisheries co-management with the public, NGOs, experts, civil society, fisher’s organizations, traders and related stakeholders, and reviews of several reports on other community-based fisheries management initiatives in Bangladesh. The study also examined stakeholder perceptions of co-management approaches from a cross-section of 1200 fishing households in 24 fishing villages.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Results indicated that performance of community-based fisheries management in Bangladesh varied widely to improve natural fish production, fish abundance and biodiversity and, with the nature of the community involved. These include the development capabilities of user groups through formation of village level Conservation Groups and fish landing center-based organizations, and capabilities of the key government agencies and law enforcing agencies for enhancing compliance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>This paper proposes a co-management arrangement for fishery management along the fish sanctuary areas of the Padma-Meghna River systems in Bangladesh. These findings provided the scientific basis of community managed fisheries management and its applications.</p> Md. Golam Mustafa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 19 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Acute Toxicity and Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility Studies of Methanol Leaf Extract of Asystasia vogeliana in Rats <p><strong>Aim</strong><strong>:</strong> To investigate the phytoconstituents of methanol and petroleum leaf extracts of <em>Asystasia</em> <em>vogeliana</em> (MLEAV and PLEAV), the median lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) and the effects of MLEAV on body weight, organosomatic indices in vital organs and erythrocyte membrane of Albino Wistar rats during sub-acute administration.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, in 2017.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The crude extracts of MLEAV and PLEAV were used in determining the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The rats were assigned into four groups and dosed orally with distilled water (0.5 ml/100 g) as Group I, 62.5 mg/kg MLEAV (Group II), 125 mg/kg MLEAV (Group III) and 250 mg/kg MLEAV (Group IV) once daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected from all the rats via the medial canthus into EDTA bottles for erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) study on day 29. Relative organ-body weight indices of vital organs (spleen, heart, liver and kidney) were also evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> MLEAV and PLEAV showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids, anthraquinones and steroids. The total phenolic contents of MLEAV (3704.30 ± 44.00) significantly increase (<em>P = 0.000</em>) when compared with PLEAV (1349.46 ± 35.25). The LD<sub>50</sub> of MLEAV is above 5000 mg/kg. There were significant (<em>P &lt; 0.05</em>) decreases in the body weights of rats in Groups III and IV from 3<sup>rd</sup> to 4<sup>th</sup> week when compared with their baseline weights. There were significant (<em>P &lt; 0.05</em>) increases in the relative spleen-body weight in Group IV when compared with other groups. There was no significant change (<em>P &gt; 0.05</em>) in the hemolysis of rats in Group II when compared with the control group at 0.9% NaCl concentration.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The findings reveal that MLEAV showed better antioxidant capacity than PLEAV, and that 62.5 mg/kg of MLEAV is safe during the sub-acute administration.</p> Hillary Emeka Ugwuanyi, Patrick Emeka Aba, Samuel Chukwuneke Udem, Innocent Ifeanyi Madubuinyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 19 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Surveillance of Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Beef and Frozen Poultry Meat (Chicken) <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Oxacillin resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (ORSA) associated with beef and frozen chicken is a threat to public health because of the potential ability of them being multiple antibiotics resistant.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is therefore to isolate, determine the susceptibility of <em>S. aureus </em>to oxacillin and subsequently other antibiotics so as to establish their antibiotic profiles.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Beef meat (20) and frozen chicken (20) samples were collected from different markets and restaurants in Oyo town, Oyo state, Nigeria. <em>S. aureus</em> was isolated from these samples using Mannitol Salt Agar and pure culture obtained. Pure culture of isolates was characterized and identified based on morphological, biochemical properties and were further subjected to susceptibility to oxacillin and other antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Eighty <em>S. aureus</em> were isolated from beef meat and frozen chicken with occurrence of 34 and 46 respectively. Twenty five out of the 80 isolates were susceptible to oxacillin and termed as oxacillin susceptible <em>S. aureus </em>(OSSA) while 55 were resistant to oxacillin and termed as oxacillin resistant <em>S. aureus </em>(ORSA). <em>S. aureus </em>(ORSA and OSSA) from beef are susceptible (˃ 80%) to augmentin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, ofloxacin, cefuroxime and erythromycin. However, rate of resistance of ORSA to ceftazidime and cloxacillin was high (˃ 70%). The susceptibility rate among the ORSA and OSSA isolates from chicken is also slight high with minimum of 71% for ofloxacin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The overall antibiotic profiling revealed that cefuroxime, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, ofloxacin and augmentin are viable antibiotics. Food products remain a potential interface in the transmission of <em>Staphylococcus </em>species and therefore there is constant need for the surveillance and subsequently recommendation on the good hygiene practice.</p> Samuel Adedayo Fasiku, John Olusola Olayiwola, Emmanuel Oluwasegun Babayemi, Omorinsola Tolulope Lasekan, Afolake Atinuke Olanbiwoninu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 21 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Structure of the Woody Stands of the Future Pre-Release Site of North African Ostrich (Struthiocameluscamelus(Linnaeus, 1858)) in Koutous, Niger <p>This study aims to investigate the composition and Important Value Index (IVI) of the woody stands of Tchillala, a 130-ha area selected for future North-African ostriches (<em>Struthiocameluscamelus</em>) prerelease in the Koutous region in Niger. The forest inventory method was implemented in 42 plots of 50 m x 20 m (1000 m²) for tree-level observation, using stratified random sampling. For each woody specimen, the trunk diameter, total height and crown diameter have been recorded; thespecimens with a trunk diameter smaller than 5 cm are considered as regenerations. A total of 17 woody species distributed across 10 families have been identified and most of them belongs either to the Mimosaceae (4 species) or the Tiliaceae (3 species). The plants density, domination and frequency were used to determine the IVI: <em>Acacia tortilis</em> and <em>Balanitesaegyptiaca</em> are the species with the highest IVI(118.43 and 88.28 respectively). The woody plants condition assessment has emphasized that trees have been facing natural (uprooting) and anthropogenic (cutting, pruning) threats. Consequently, the diameter class structures within the whole woody species community of Tchilala, as well as of the <em>Acacia tortilis</em> and <em>Balanitesaegyptiaca</em>, are mainly small size trees. The results of this study inform silvicultural management actions that would benefit to the North-African ostrich’establishment in Tchilala and the data collected are considered as possible indicators for long-term monitoring of habitat.</p> Maïmounatou Ibrahim Mamadou, Maman Kamal Abdou Habou, Thomas Rabeil, Habou Rabiou, Marie Petretto, Ali Mahamane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 24 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000