Journal of Applied Life Sciences International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Applied Life Sciences International (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1103)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JALSI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘applied life sciences’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Applied Life Sciences International 2394-1103 Phytodiversity Analysis of Tree Species of Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS), Odisha, India <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The study aimed to investigate tree diversity in Kuldiha wildlife sanctuary of Odisha. Twenty (20) plots of 100 sqm each were established in three different disturbed zones within the forest.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Important quantitative analysis such as density, frequency and abundance of tree species were determined along with the diversity indices which would give a better understanding of the forest structure.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed a total of 118 tree species of 95 genera distributed in 39 families, were recorded in the different study areas of the forest. From the distribution index it was seen that nearly 80% of the species showed contiguous distribution in the core area. The buffer zone exhibited maximum proportion of the species (25%) with random distribution. In tree species, the value of species richness (Dmg) was highest in core area (14.852) and lowest in periphery area (7.114). The value of species diversity (H’) in tree species was highest in core area (4.332) and lowest in periphery area (3.115). Simpson index of dominance was calculated by using the important value of the plant species which showed minor variation within the study site. The value of dominance (D) in tree species was found to be highest in core area 0.982) and lowest in periphery area (0.931).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The forest of KWLS harbours a rich diversity of flora and these diversity indices would give an important insight on laying the conservation strategies in this forest.</p> R. Saravanan K. A. Sujana D. Kannan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-26 2019-12-26 1 14 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i430132 Raw Material from Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) as Effective Fungicide against Fusarium oxysporum and the Oleoresin Profile of Nutmeg <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Present study tested the antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and hot water extracts of nutmeg leaf, mace, kernel and pericarp at three concentration levels (5, 10 and 20%) against <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The agar dilution technique was used and the effect of different concentration of plant extracts on radial growth of reference fungi was evaluated. GC-MS analysis was used for compound analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Complete inhibition of <em>F. oxyporum</em> was found at 10% and 20% concentrations of acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of leaf, mace, and kernel and, chloroform leaf extract. Mace showed the highest inhibition among sample extracts under every solvent. Among the detected compounds, 3-acridinamine was detected from the genus <em>Myristica</em> for the first time in this study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results showed possible use of <em>M. fragrance</em> against <em>F. oxysporum</em>. Since the mace part was rich with many antifungal compounds such as phthalide, palmitic and oleic acid, myristicin, safrol, α-cubebene and aromandendrene, mace can be used as raw material to develop fungicide against <em>F. oxysporum</em>.</p> A. Y. L. Fernando W. S. M. Senevirathne ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 1 10 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i430133 Diversity, Life Forms, Chorology and Uses of Spontaneous Medicinal Plants in Niamey and Tillabéri Regions, Niger Republic <p>Plants are the pharmacy of people in rural and urban areas in West African. However, few studies assessed the ecology and diversity of medicinal plants mostly rural and urban areas. This study assessed the taxonomic composition, life form, chorology and uses of the different organs of the spontaneous medicinal plants in Niamey and Tillabéri regions in Niger. The questionnaire survey consisted of individual interview on 168 traditional healers in two regions. A total of 181 species belonging to 60 families were recorded in Niamey and Tillabéri regions where Fabaceae (19 species) was the dominate family in two regions. The woody species presented 56.59% of the total recorded flora while the herbaceous species were 43.41%. The biological spectrum showed that phanerophytes (57%) were the dominant followed by therophytes (24%) in both regions. This indicates the use of trees, shrubs and annual plants in the traditional medicines in two regions. It also indicates about the tropical habitat. Chorological analysis results revealed that most of the taxa are Sudano-Zambezian (38%) at African scale. Whereas at global level African species (62%) were the dominant chorotype. Leaves (36%) were the most used parts followed by the bark (20%). These different proportions of uses show that the pharmacopoeia of the study area is based on African savannah trees and shrubs. Given the diversity of plant used traditional medicines recorded in two regions, the study recommends successful integration of the use of medicinal plants into a public health framework for biodiversity conservation in both regions. It is important to strengthen conservation strategies to protect this heritage.</p> A. J. Mamadou S. Douma M. M. Inoussa S. Moussa A. Mahamane M. Saadou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 1 17 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i430134 Effect of Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) Values of Surfactant Mixtures on the Physicochemical Properties of Emulsifiable Concentrate Formulations of Difenoconazole <p>This study was designed to investigate the effect of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values of different surfactant mixtures on the physicochemical properties of emulsifiable concentrate formulations of difenoconazole. Physical tests of emulsion characteristics and storage stability studies were performed for the different samples to predict the stability of these formulations. Different parameters such as active ingredient content, pH, refractive index, surface tension, viscosity, flash point, persistent foam was determined for the prepared samples. The results showed that difenoconazole could be formulated as a stable emulsifiable concentrate by using a mixture of surfactants at HLB values 9.7, 11.9, 12.5 and 13.1. The storage stability test showed that the decomposition rate of the active ingredient content of difenoconazole in different stable formulations was within the acceptable limits of FAO Specifications. The physical and chemical properties of the stable formulations fulfilled the requirements of EC formulation.</p> Walaa El-Sayed Tahany G. M. Mohammad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-25 2020-01-25 1 10 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i430135 Influence of Soil Amendment on the Relative Growth Rate and Net Assimilation Rate of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna aconitifolia <p><strong>Background: </strong>Soil pH is one of the most important factors that contribute to crop growth and productivity. The present research was designed to assess the influence of soil amendment using organic manure and agricultural lime on the relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) of <em>Phaseolus vulgaris </em>and <em>Vigna aconitifolia</em> grown on soils from different locations.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The three locations were: Akamkpa, Calabar Municipality and Odukpani. The pH for the three soil locations were 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0, respectively. The treatments were; control (0 g), OM<sub>1</sub> (100 g organic manure), OM<sub>2</sub> (200 g organic manure), AL<sub>1</sub> (100 g agricultural lime), AL<sub>2</sub> (200 g agricultural lime), OM<sub>1</sub> + AL<sub>1</sub> (50 g organic manure + 50 g agricultural lime) and OM<sub>2</sub> +AL<sub>2</sub> (100 g organic manure and 100 g agricultural lime).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Results obtained on the RGR of the leaf dry weight of <em>P. vulgaris </em>treated with OM<sub>2 </sub>was the highest (0.50 g/wk) followed by OM<sub>1 </sub>(0.41 g/wk). OM<sub>1</sub> + AL<sub>1 </sub>had the highest RGR of the stem dry weight of <em>P. vulgaris</em> grown on soil from Calabar Municipality. In the RGR of the root dry weight, OM<sub>2 </sub>had the highest mean value in both plants grown on Akamkpa soil. Results obtained at 4 weeks after planting (WAP) revealed that there was significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in NAR of plants grown on soil from Akamkpa. The highest NAR was obtained for <em>V. aconitifolia</em> treated with OM<sub>2</sub> (0.0447 g/wk) followed by OM<sub>2</sub> + AL<sub>2</sub> (0.0057 g/wk) for both <em>V. aconitifolia</em> and <em>P. vulgaris</em>. <em>P. vulgaris</em> grown on Akamkpa and Odukpani soils treated with AL<sub>2</sub> (0.0032 g/wk), OM<sub>1</sub> + AL<sub>1</sub> (0.0041 g/wk) and OM<sub>2</sub>+ AL<sub>2</sub> (0.0062 g/wk) had the highest NAR at 8 WAP.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The RGR and NAR of the two bean varieties were improved following treatments with organic manure and agricultural lime.</p> E. A. Effa A. A. J. Mofunanya B. A. Ngele ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 1 13 10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i430136