Main Article Content
Aim: To investigate the phytoconstituents of methanol and petroleum leaf extracts of Asystasia vogeliana (MLEAV and PLEAV), the median lethal dose (LD50) and the effects of MLEAV on body weight, organosomatic indices in vital organs and erythrocyte membrane of Albino Wistar rats during sub-acute administration.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, in 2017.
Methodology: The crude extracts of MLEAV and PLEAV were used in determining the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The rats were assigned into four groups and dosed orally with distilled water (0.5 ml/100 g) as Group I, 62.5 mg/kg MLEAV (Group II), 125 mg/kg MLEAV (Group III) and 250 mg/kg MLEAV (Group IV) once daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected from all the rats via the medial canthus into EDTA bottles for erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) study on day 29. Relative organ-body weight indices of vital organs (spleen, heart, liver and kidney) were also evaluated.
Results: MLEAV and PLEAV showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids, anthraquinones and steroids. The total phenolic contents of MLEAV (3704.30 ± 44.00) significantly increase (P = 0.000) when compared with PLEAV (1349.46 ± 35.25). The LD50 of MLEAV is above 5000 mg/kg. There were significant (P < 0.05) decreases in the body weights of rats in Groups III and IV from 3rd to 4th week when compared with their baseline weights. There were significant (P < 0.05) increases in the relative spleen-body weight in Group IV when compared with other groups. There was no significant change (P > 0.05) in the hemolysis of rats in Group II when compared with the control group at 0.9% NaCl concentration.
Conclusions: The findings reveal that MLEAV showed better antioxidant capacity than PLEAV, and that 62.5 mg/kg of MLEAV is safe during the sub-acute administration.
(Accessed 18 September 2019)
Heinrich M, Barnes J, Gibbons S, William EM. Fundamentals of pharmacognosy and phytotherapy. 5th Ed. Edinbugh: Churchill Livingstone. 2004;245-252.
Vickers A, Zollman C, Lee R. Herbal medicine. West J. Med. 2001;175:125-128.
Karimi A, Maijiesi M, Rafieian-Kopaem M. Herbal versus synthetic drugs: Beliefs and facts. J Nephropharmacol. 2015;4:27-20.
Wikipedia. Taxonomy of Asystasia vogeliana; 2017.
(Accessed 8 March 2017)
Okoli F. Iba ocha n’ anya translated. Osuigbo. 2015;12(28):9.
Rodak MS, Bernadette F, Fritsma MS, George A, Keohane E. Hematology clinical principles and applications, 4th Ed. Saunders. 2011;880.
Fischbauch FT, Dunning MB. A manual of laboratory and diagnosis tests, 8th Ed. Lippincott W and Wilkins. 2008;118.
Geer JP, Arber DA, Glader B, List AF, Means RT, Paraskevas F, et al. Wintrobe’s clinical hematology. 13th Ed. Lippincolt W and Wilkins. 2013;2312.
Judith MD. Osmotic fragility test: Purpose, procedure and results; 2018.
(Accessed 7 December 2018)
Khanna R, Chang SH, Andrabi S, Azam M, Kim A, Brughara C, et al. Headpiece domain of dematin is required for stability of the erythrocyte’s membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002;10:6637-6642.
Trease GE, Evans WC. A textbook of pharmacognosy,12th Ed. London: Bailliere Tindall. 1989;832.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 3rd Ed. Springer Science and Business Media. 1998;302.
Kokate CK. Pharmacognosy, 16th Ed. Mumbai India: Nirali Pralasham. 2001;323.
Hagerman A, Muller-Harvey I, Makkar HPS. Quantification of tannins in tree foliage. A laboratory manual for the FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on the ‘use of nuclear and related techniques to develop simple tannin assays for predicting ruminants on tanniniferous tree foliage’. VIENNA: IAEA. 2000;25.
Sathishkumar T, Baskar R, Aravind M, Tilak S, Deepthi S, Bharathikumar VM. Simultaneous extraction, optimization and analysis of flavonoids from the flowers of Tabernaemontana heyneana by high performance and electrospray ionization / mass spectrometry. ISRN Biotechnol. 2013;2013:10.
Muthukumaran P, Saraswathy N, Aswitha V, Balan R, Babu VG, Indumathi P, et al. Assessment of total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin content and phytochemical screening of leaf and flower extracts from Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Backer exk. Heyne: A comparative study. J Pharmacogn. 2016;8:140-143.
Shamsa F, Monself H, Ghamooshi R, Verdian-rizi M. Spectrophotometric determination of total alkaloids in some Iranian medicinal plants. Thai J Pharm Sci. 2008;32:17-20.
Sharief N, Srinivasulu A, Maheshwara U, Rao V. Estimation of alkaloids and total phenol in roots of Denis trifoliate and evaluation for antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Indian J Appl Res. 2014;4:1-3.
Hiais S, Oura H, Nakajima T. Color reaction of some sapogenins and saponins with vanillin and sulphuric acid. Planta Med. 1976;29:116-122.
Singh R, Mendhulkar V. Abutilon indicum (Lnn.) sweet leaves, a natural source of saponin: A spectrophotometric assay. Int J Pharm Tech Res. 2015;8:725-729.
OECD. Guideline for testing of chemicals; Acute oral toxicity – Acute toxic class method. OECD Test Guideline 423. Organization for Economic Coorporation and Development (OECD), Paris, France; 2001.
Schalm OW, Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ. Schalm’s veterinary hematology, 6th Ed. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Black. 2010;1206.
Faulkner WR, King JW. Manual of clinical laboratory procedures. Clerland OH: Chemical Rubber Co. 1970;354.
Jorge CR, Angel JM, Pablo AE, Maira RS. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic compounds isolated from Medipona beecheii honey. Food Agric Immunol. 2017;28:1424-1437.
Tungmunnithum D, Thongboonyou A, Pholboon A, Yangsabai A. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds from medicinal plants for pharmaceutical and medical aspects: An overview. Med Sci (Basel). 2018;5:93.
Doughari JH, Human IS, Bennade S, Ndakidemi PA. Phytochemicals as chemotherapeutic agents and antioxidants: possible solution to the control of antibiotic resistant verocytotoxin-producing bacteria. J Med Plants Res. 2009;3:839-848.
Yuming W, Jiahui W, Ryo CY, Chunhua L, Xiaoqiari HU, Ping D, et al. Effects of two sulfated triterpene saponins Echinoside A and Holothrium A on the inhibition of dietary fat absorption and obesity reduction. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014;78:139-146.
Siva EM, Souza JNS, Rogez H, Rees JF, Larondelle Y. Antioxidant activities and polyphenol contents of fifteen selected plant species from the Amazoian region. Food Chem. 2007;101:1012-18.
Lafay S, Gil – Izquierdo A. Bioavailability of phenolic acids. Phytochem Rev. 2008;7: 301-311.
Saxena M, Saxena T, Nema R, Singh D, Gupta A. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2013;1: 168–182.
Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Rahmat A. Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids contents in two varieties of Malaysia young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscie). Molecules 2010;15:4324-4333.
Jenkins KJ, Atwal AS. Effects of dietary saponins on fecal bile acids and neutral sterols, availability of vitamins A and E in the chick. J Nutr Biochem. 1994;5:134-137.
Matsuura M. Saponins in garlic as modifiers of the risk of cardiovascular disease. J Nutr. 2001;131(Suppl:1000-1005).
Kumarnsit E, Keawpradub N, Nuankaew W. Acute and long-term effects of alkaloid extract of Mitragyna speciose on feed and water intake and body weight in rats. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:339-45.
Oleszek WL, Nowacka J, Gee JM, Wortley G, Johnson II. Effects of some purified alfafa (Medicago sativa) saponins on transmural potential difference in mammalian small intestine. J Sc Food Agric. 1994;65:35-39.
Kilta PT, Mathison GW, Fenton TW. Effects of alfafa root saponins on digestive function in sheep. J Anim Sc. 1996;74: 1144-1156.
Han LK, XU BJ, Kinura Y, Zheng YN, Okuda H. Platycodiradix affects lipid metabolism in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity. J Nutr. 2000;130:2760-2764.
Shimoyadama M, Ikedo S, Ootsnbo R, Watanabe K. Effects of soyabean proteins on chymotryptic hydrolysis of soyabean proteins. J Agric Food Chem. 1998;46: 131-140.
Das TK, Banerjee DL, Chakraborty D, Pakhira MC, Shrivastava B, Knhad RC. Saponin: Role in animal system. Vet World. 2012;5:248-254.
Potter SM, Menez –Flores JR, Pollace J, Lone TA, Berber –Menez MD. Protein-saponin interaction and its influence on blood lipids. J Agric Food Chem. 1993;41: 1287-1291.
Ramankrishma N, Vinod KG, Santamu J, Samtoshkumar PK, Anil G. What suits best for organ weight analysis: Review of relationship between organ weight and body/brain weight for rodent toxicity studies. Int J Pharma Sci Rev Res. 2014;5:1525-1532.
Ramankrishma N, Vinod KG, Santamu J, Samtoshkumar P, Anil G. Discovery toxicology. Int J Pharma Sci Rev Res. 2014;5:33-40.
Mustafa ZM. Splenic weight versus body height and body weight in Sudanese adults by using ultrasound. Asian J med Radio Res. 2013;1:56-58.
Mahdeb N, Mayonf S, Boukhari F, Souilah S, Bouzidi A. Alkaloids can disrupt the permeability of the membranes of red blood cells of ruminants. Asian J Plant Sci Res. 2013;3:53-59.
McManus OB, Harris GH, Giangiacombo KM. An activator of calcium-dependent potassium channels isolated from a medicinal herb. Biochemistry 1993;32: 6128-33.
Bissinger R, Modicano P, Alzoubi K, Honisch S, Faggio C, Abed M, Lang F. Effects of saponins on erythrocytes. Int J Hematol. 2014;100:51-9.
Baumann E, Stoya G, Volkner A, Richter W, Lemke C, Linss W. Hemolysis of human erythrocytes with saponins affects the membrane structure. Acta Histochem. 2000;102:21-35.