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Plants are the pharmacy of people in rural and urban areas in West African. However, few studies assessed the ecology and diversity of medicinal plants mostly rural and urban areas. This study assessed the taxonomic composition, life form, chorology and uses of the different organs of the spontaneous medicinal plants in Niamey and Tillabéri regions in Niger. The questionnaire survey consisted of individual interview on 168 traditional healers in two regions. A total of 181 species belonging to 60 families were recorded in Niamey and Tillabéri regions where Fabaceae (19 species) was the dominate family in two regions. The woody species presented 56.59% of the total recorded flora while the herbaceous species were 43.41%. The biological spectrum showed that phanerophytes (57%) were the dominant followed by therophytes (24%) in both regions. This indicates the use of trees, shrubs and annual plants in the traditional medicines in two regions. It also indicates about the tropical habitat. Chorological analysis results revealed that most of the taxa are Sudano-Zambezian (38%) at African scale. Whereas at global level African species (62%) were the dominant chorotype. Leaves (36%) were the most used parts followed by the bark (20%). These different proportions of uses show that the pharmacopoeia of the study area is based on African savannah trees and shrubs. Given the diversity of plant used traditional medicines recorded in two regions, the study recommends successful integration of the use of medicinal plants into a public health framework for biodiversity conservation in both regions. It is important to strengthen conservation strategies to protect this heritage.
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