Raw Material from Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) as Effective Fungicide against Fusarium oxysporum and the Oleoresin Profile of Nutmeg

Main Article Content

A. Y. L. Fernando
W. S. M. Senevirathne

Abstract

Aims: Present study tested the antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and hot water extracts of nutmeg leaf, mace, kernel and pericarp at three concentration levels (5, 10 and 20%) against Fusarium oxysporum.

Methodology: The agar dilution technique was used and the effect of different concentration of plant extracts on radial growth of reference fungi was evaluated. GC-MS analysis was used for compound analysis.

Results: Complete inhibition of F. oxyporum was found at 10% and 20% concentrations of acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of leaf, mace, and kernel and, chloroform leaf extract. Mace showed the highest inhibition among sample extracts under every solvent. Among the detected compounds, 3-acridinamine was detected from the genus Myristica for the first time in this study.

Conclusion: The results showed possible use of M. fragrance against F. oxysporum. Since the mace part was rich with many antifungal compounds such as phthalide, palmitic and oleic acid, myristicin, safrol, α-cubebene and aromandendrene, mace can be used as raw material to develop fungicide against F. oxysporum.

Keywords:
Antifungal activity, Fusarium oxyporum, GC-MS, nutmeg.

Article Details

How to Cite
Y. L. Fernando, A., & S. M. Senevirathne, W. (2020). Raw Material from Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) as Effective Fungicide against Fusarium oxysporum and the Oleoresin Profile of Nutmeg. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 22(4), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i430133
Section
Original Research Article

References

Cooper J. Master Gardener WSU County Extension, SJC Credit. Fungal plant pathogens and symptomology; 2007.
Available:https://s3.wp.wsu.edu/uploads/sites/2054/2014/04/FungalPlantPathogens_002.pdf)

Brown J, Ogle H. Fungal diseaces and their control. In: Plant pathogens and plant diseases. Rockvale Publications. 1997; 443-466.

Leonberger K, Jackson K, Smith R, Ward G, Ward N. Plant diseases. Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications. 2016;182.

Kang S, Demers J, Maria del Mar Jimenez-Gasco, Martijn, Fusarium oxysporum. In Genomics of Plant-Associated Fungi and Oomycetes: Dicot Pathogens. Springer. 2014;99-119.

Gupta AD, Bansal KB, Babu V, Maithil N,. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt). J. Genetic Eng. Biotechnol. 2013; 11:25-31.

Department of Export Agriculture. Spice and condiments. Department of Export Agriculture; 2017.
Available:http://www.exportagridept.gov.lk/web/index.php?lang=en.

Smid EJ, Gorris LGM. Natural antimicrobial for food preservation. In R. M.S., Handbook of Food Preservation. CRC Press. 2 nd ed. 2007;237–258.

Olaleye MT, Akinmoladun AC, Akindahunsi AA. Antioxidant properties of Myristica fragrans (Houtt) and its effect on selected organs of albino rats. African J. Biotechnol. 2006;5:1274-1278.

Tan KP, Khoo HE, Azrina A. Comparison of antioxidant components and antioxidant capacity in different parts of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans). Int. Food Res. J. 2013;20:1049-1052.

Beuchat LG. Antimicrobials occurring naturally in foods. AGRIS, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; 1989.
Available:http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/ search. do? Record ID= US8900153.

Bamidele O, Akinnuga AM, Alagbonsi IA, Ojo OA, Olorunfemi JO, Akuyoma MA. Effects of ethanolic extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Nutmeg) on some haematological in albino rats. Int. J. Med. Medical Sci. 2011;6:215–218.

Valente V, Jham G, Jardim C, Dhingra O, Ghiviriga I, Composition and antifungal activity of the Brazilian Myristica fragrans Houtt essential oil. J. Food Safety. 2011; 31:2:197-202

Sipahelut SG, Patty JA, Patty A, Kastanja AY, Lekahena VNJ. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oil derived from the flesh of nutmeg fruit, Eurasian J. Biosci. 2019;13(1):93-98.

Neela FA, Sonia IA, Shamsi S. Antifungal activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on Fussarium Oxysporum. American J. Plant Sci. 2014;5:2665-2671.

Kulisica T, Radonicb A, Katalinicc V, Milosa M. Use of different methods for testing antioxidative activity of oregano essential oil. Food Chem. 2004;85:633-640.

Radwan MM, Tabanca N, Wedge DE, Tarawneh AH, Cutler SJ. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity. Fitoterapia. 2014;99:341-346.

Sudradjat SE, Timotius KH, Mun’im A. Anwar E. The isolation of myristicin from nutmeg oil by sequences distillation. J. Young Pharm. 2018;10:20-23.

Yang XW, Huang X, Ahmat M. New neolignan from seed of Myristica fragrans. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008; 33:397-402.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. USA; 2019.

Matsui T, Ito C, Masubuchi S. Itoigawa M, Licarin A is a candidate compound for the treatment of immediate hypersensitivity via inhibition of rat mast cell line RBL-2H3 cells. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2015;67:1723-32.

Hou JP, Wu H, Wang Y, Weng XC. Isolation of some compounds from nutmeg and their antioxidant activities. Czech J. Food Sci. 2012;30:164–170.

Chiu S, Wang T, Belski M, Abourashed EA,. HPLC-Guided isolation, purification and characterization of phenylpropanoid and phenolic constituents of nutmeg kernel (Myristica fragrans). Nat. Prod. Commun. 2016;11:483-8.

Acuna UM, Carcache PJB, Matthew S, Blanco EJCD, New acyclic bis phenylpropanoid and neolignans, from Myristica fragrans Houtt. exhibiting PARP-1 and NF-κB inhibitory effects. Food Chem. 2016;202:269–275.

National Toxicology Program. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of isoeugenol (CAS No. 97-54-1) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser.US. 2010; 551:1-178.

Pinheiro LS, Sousa JP, Barreto NA, Dantas TB, Menezes CP, Lima AL, Silva AC, Santos JM, Oliveira-Filho AA, Lima EO. Eugenol and Isoeugenol In: Association with Antifungal against Cryptococcus neoformans. 2017;9:596-599.

Wheeler MH, Klich MA. The effects of Tricyclazole, Pyroquilon, Phthalide, and related fungicides on the production of conidial wall pigments by Penicillium and Aspergillus Species. Pesticide Biochem. Physiol. 1995;52:125-136.

Agoramoorthy G, Chandrasekaran M, Venkatesalu V, Hsu MJ. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of fatty acid methyl esters of the blind-your-eye mangrove from India. Brazilian J. Microbiol. 2007;3:739-742.

Jung K, Miyagawa M, Matsuda A, Amagai Y, Oida K, Okamoto Y, Takai M, Nishikawa S, Jang H, Ishizaka S, Ahn G, Tanaka A. Matsuda H. Antifungal effects of palmitic acid salt and ultrapure soft water on Scedosporium apiospermum. J. Appl. Microbiol. 2013;115:711-7.

Liu S, Ruan W, Li J, Xu H, Wan J, Gao Y. Wang J. Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids. Mycopathologia. 2008;166:93-102.

Valente V, Jham G, Jardim C, Dhingra O, Ghiviriga I. Major antifungals in nutmeg essential oil against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus. J. Food Res. 2015;4:51-57.

Noge K. Becerra j. Germacrene D. A common sesquiterpene in the genus bursera (Burseraceae). Molecules. 2009; 14:5289-97.

Siddiqui SA, Islam R, Islam R, Jamal AHM, Parvin T, Rahman A. Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. Arabian. J. Chem. 2017;10:S2170-S2174.

Guo L, Wu JZ, Han T, Cao T, Rahman K, Qin LP. Chemical composition, antifungal and antitumor properties of ether extracts of Scapania verrucosa Heeg. and its endophytic fungus Chaetomium fusiforme. Molecules. 2008;13:2114- 25.

Professional pine chemical suppliers. beta-Phellandrene. Xiamen, China; 2019.
Available:https://foreverest.cn/products/turpentine-derivatives/80-beta-phellandrene.html