Characteristics and Antibiogram Studies of Bacteria Associated with Vegetables Stored In Raffia Baskets in Nigeria

Main Article Content

D. N. Ogbonna
S. I. Douglas
M. E. Inana

Abstract

Raffia baskets are used in rural communities to preserve fresh vegetables for a given period of time. This method of storage is aimed at extending the shelf life of the vegetables until they are used. Thus, this study was aimed at determining the microbial succession during storage and susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from stored leafy vegetables to various antibiotics. Five (5) leafy vegetables namely, Bitter leaf (Vernomia anydalira), Water leaf (Talinum triangulare), Fluted pumpkin leaf, (Telfairia occidentalis), Okazi leaf (Gnetum africana) and Scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum) were obtained from the Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) farm, Port Harcourt. These vegetables were stored in a raffia basket for fourteen (14) days while another set of the vegetables were left in the open air as control. This set up was monitored for changes to occur.  Standard microbiological techniques were employed for the various analyses of the vegetable samples. Both cultural and molecular characterizations of the isolates were done. The disc diffusion method was used in determining the susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates. The results of the predominant microorganisms identified were of the genus; Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bordetella, Staphylococcus, Myroides, Escherichia, Serratia, Micrococcus and Acetobacter.  Also, Bacillus species occurred in all the vegetables while Enterococcus faecalis, Acetobacter orientalis, Bordetella pertussis, Myroides xuanwuensis and Bacillus flexus were isolated on the third day of storage from the vegetables. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 1.8 x106 cfu/g to 1.25 x107 cfu/g (bitter leaf), 9x105 cfu/g to 9.0 x106 cfu/g (Scent leaf), 7 x105 cfu/g to 1.88 x107 cfu/g (Okazi), 3.2x10cfu/g to 1.05x107 cfu/g (Fluted pumpkin leaf) and 8.4 x106 cfu/g to 2.04 x107 cfu/g (water leaf). Antibiogram of bacterial isolates revealed that they were resistant to Augmentin and Ceftazidime according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute schemes. Combination of the antibiotics showed that most of the isolates were 100% susceptible to ciprofloxacin + erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin + ceftriaxone. The study revealed that for all the vegetables, those stored in the basket lasted longer and were fresher compared to those kept in the open space. This study revealed that the raffia baskets are suitable for storage and preservation of leafy vegetables, but microbial succession occurred as a result of increase in the period of storage leading to the proliferation of microorganisms. This could be from aerosols or by chance inoculation, through handling or materials used or other microorganisms which are inherent in the vegetables because of their contact with the soil or water used in the washing of the leaves.

Keywords:
Bacterial isolates, raffia baskets, antibiotic susceptibility, leafy vegetables, NSPRI.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ogbonna, D. N., Douglas, S. I., & Inana, M. E. (2019). Characteristics and Antibiogram Studies of Bacteria Associated with Vegetables Stored In Raffia Baskets in Nigeria. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 22(2), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2019/v22i230124
Section
Original Research Article

References

Aderuipekum CO, Oyetunji OJ. Nutritional values of some tropical vegetables. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2010;35: 2294-2300.

Tafinta IY, Shehu K, Abdulganiyyu H, Rabe AM, Usman A. Isolation and identification of fungi associated with the spoilage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) fruits in Sokoto State. Nigerian Journal Basic Applied. Science. 2013;21(3):193-196.

Wilson IG. Post harvest handling of vegetables. Journal of Advances in Food Science & Technology. 2008;3(3): 129-133.

Da Silva, D João C, Imai S. Vegetables consumption and its benefits on diabetes. Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics. 2017; 6(1):1-10.

Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO). Research Extension Linkage Strategy. EARO, Addis Ababa; 2000.

Uzeh RE, Alade FA, Bankole M. The microbial quality of prepacked mixed vegetable salad in some retail outlets in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science. 2009;3(9):270-272.

Pradnya J, Patel S. Microbiological analysis of fresh fruits and vegetables and effect of anti-microbial agents on microbial load. PhD Thesis, University of Mumbai; 2008.

Ozlem S. Survey of fresh vegetables for nematodes. Journal Association of Analytical Chemistry. 2005;6:613-615.

Feng P, Weagant SD, Gant MA. Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria. in: Marker RI (ed.) revision AUS Food and Drug Administration College Park MD; 2002.

Froder H, Martins CG, Deouza KL, Landgrof M, Franco BD. Minimal processed vegetable salad: Microbial quality evaluation. Journal of Food Production. 2007;70:127-71280.

Abara AE. Tannin content of Dioscorea bulbufera. Journal of Chemistry Society Nigeria. 2003;28:55-56.

Mbuwih AA. Preservation and Storage of Leafy Vegetables. Universität; 2011.

Clearance Clarence SY, Nwinyi CO, Chinedu NS. Assessment of bacteriological quality of ready to eat food (Meat pie) in Benin City metropolis, Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3(6):390-395.

Nrior RR, Odokuma LO. Comparative toxicity of drilling fluids to marine water shrimp (Mysidoposis baling) and brashkish water shrimy palaemoneles africanus. Journal of Evironmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2015; 73-79.

Amadi EN, Kiin-Kabari DB, Kpormon LB, Robinson VKK. Microbial flora and nutritional composition of adult Palm - Wine Beetle (Rhychophorus phoenicus). International journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science. 2014; 3(11):189-192.

Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practices in tropical countries. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. 2005; 30-41.

Wemedo SA, Robinson VK. Evaluation of Indoor air for bacteria organisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in a government health institution. Journal of Advances in Microbiology. 2018;11(3):1-7.

Okerule IO, Onyema CT. Comparative assessment of phytochemicals, proximate and elemental composition of gnetum africanum (Okazi) leaves. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2015;6(7): 604-606.

Ogbonna DN, Inana ME. Characterization and multiple antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates associated with fish aquaculture in ponds and rivers in port harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology. 2018;10(4):1-14.

Odunfa SA. African fermented foods: From Art to Science. Mircen Journal. 1988;4: 259-273.

Douglas SI, Amuzie CC. Microbiological quality of Hoplobatrachus occipitalis (amphibia, anura) used as meat. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2017; 6(6):3192–3200.

Mandrell RE, Gorski L, Brandl MT. Attachment of microorganisms to fresh produce. Microbiology of fresh fruits and vegetables, CRC Press. 2006;375-400.

Tournas VH. Spoilage of vegetable crops by bacteria and fungi and related health hazards. Critical Review of Microbiology. 2005b;31:33–44.

Ribeiro JC, Tamanini R, Soares BF, De Oliveira AM, De Godoi SF. Efficiency of boiling and four other methods for genomic DNA extraction of deteriorating spore-forming bacteria from milk. Semina: Ciências agrárias, Londrina. 2016;37(5): 3069-3078.

George PM. Encyclopedia of foods. Humane Press; Washington P. 2003;1: 526.

Tyne DV, Dieye B, Valim C, Daniel RF, Sen FD, Lukem AK, Ndiaye M, Bei AK, Ndiaye VD, Hamiltor EJ, Ndir O, Mboup S, Volkman SK, Wirth DF, Ndiaye D. Changes in drug sensitivity and antimicrobial drug resistance mutations over time among Plasmodium flaciparium Parasites in Senegal. Malaria Journal. 2013;12:441.