Comparative Analysis of Phytochemicals Screening, Proximate and Elemental Analysis of Anacardium occidentale L. Nuts and Carica papaya Seeds

Main Article Content

Abubakar Hayatuddeen
Timothy Musa Chiroma
Barambu Nafiu Umar
Mohammed Bashir


Aims: The aim of this study was comparative analysis of phytochemicals screening, proximate and elemental analysis of Anacardium occidentale L nut and Carica papaya seeds extracts.

Study Design: The samples were cleaned, washed with water, dried, and grinded with a laboratory mortar and pestle, packed in an air tight container and stored ready for further analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted at the Chevron Biotechnology Centre, Modibbo Adamawa University of Yola, Nigeria which lasted for about three months.

Methodology: The nuts were manually separated from fruit pulp, cleaned, washed with water, dried, roasted and grinded with a laboratory mortar and pestle, packed in an air tight container and stored ready for further analysis.

Results: The result of Anacardium occidentale L nut phytochemicals screening showed that with Glycosides (-), Tannins (+), flavonoids(+++), Alkaloids(++), Saponins(-) and the proximate composition (%) were as follows: moisture content (9.7 ± 0.2), ash content (3.46±0.3), crude fat (26.79± 0.5), crude protein (14.26 ± 0.01) carbohydrate (by difference) (45.78± 0.01) Calorific (Energy) value 482.00 Kcal. The mineral analysis (mg/100g) revealed that magnesium (3.50 ± 0.01), Manganese (2.00 ± 0.01), Nickel (3.22 ± 0.01) and Cobalt (0.13 ±0.01) while the phytochemical screening for Carica papaya seeds extracts also showed Glycosides (+), Tannins (++), flavonoids(++), Alkaloids(++), Saponins(-)   for the moisture content (8.59 ± 0.3), ash content (4.09±0.16), crude fat (15.60± 0.2), crude protein (15.84 ± 0.01) carbohydrate (by difference) (41.63) Calorific (Energy) value 1549.25 Kcal. The mineral analysis (mg/100g) revealed that magnesium (3.02 ± 0.02), Manganese (0.22 ± 0.01), Nickel (3.41 ± 0.01) and Cobalt (0.18 ± 0.01).

Conclusion: The study therefore indicates that the Anacardium occidentale L nut and Carica may not provide all the nutrients required by human in the right proportion though it contains an appreciable quantity of some essential nutrients like Fats, Proteins, Carbohydrate and some minerals.

Anacardium occidentale L, Carrica papaya, elemental analysis, phytochemicals, proximate

Article Details

How to Cite
Hayatuddeen, A., Chiroma, T., Umar, B., & Bashir, M. (2019). Comparative Analysis of Phytochemicals Screening, Proximate and Elemental Analysis of Anacardium occidentale L. Nuts and Carica papaya Seeds. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 21(4), 1-5.
Original Research Article


Okwu DE. Phytochemicals and vitamin content of indigenous species of South Eastern Nig. J. Sustain. Agric. Environ. 2004;6:30-34.

Chikezie PC, Agomuo EN, Amadi BA. Biochemistry, Practical/Research Method, A fundamental approach. Mega Soft Publishers. 2008;2:51-53.

Kafaru E. Immense Help from Natives Workshop, 1st Ed, Elizabeth Kafaru, Lagos, Nigeria.1994;11-14.

Mitscher LA, Ryey Ping L, Bathala MS, Wu-wu-Nan D, Roger W. Antimicrobial agents from Higher Plants: Introduction, Rational and Methodology. Llaydia. 1992; 35(2).

Baladrin MF, Clocke JA, Wurtele ES, Bolinge WH. National Plant Chemicals: Source Industrial and Medicinal Materials Science. 1985;228:1154-1160. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. A study of digit fusion in the mouse embryo. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 2009;49(2):259–276.

Gali AI, Abudulhamid AA, Effa EB, Adebiyi A, Useh MU, Etuk-Udo G. Physicochemical characterization and antibacterial activity of Senna occidentalis Linn. Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Sciences. 2016;6(1):9-18.

Ngwu NW, Effa EB, Ftepti BJ, Gali AI, Useh MU, Samuel CJ. Biochemical Studies of Ocimum sanctum and Olax subscorpioidea leaf extracts. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2016;12(4):1-9.

Adebiyi A, Bassey EE, Ayo R, Bello I, Habila J, Ishaku GA. Anti-mycobacterial, antimicrobial and phytochemical evaluation of Pulicaria crispa and Scoparia dulcis plant extracts. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016;7(4):1-11.

Aravind G, Bhowmik D,Duraivel S, Harish G. Traditional and medicinal uses of Carica papaya. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies. 2013;1:7-15.

Gouado I, Schweigert FJ, Ejoh RA, Tchouanguep MF, Camp JV. Systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed in three forms juice fresh and dry slice. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007; 61:1180-1188.

Afolayan AJ. Extracts from the shoots of arctotis artotoides inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Pharma Biology. 2003; 14:22-25.

Flath RA, Forrey RR. Volatile components of papaya (Carica papaya L., solo variety). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1983;25(1):103-109.

Bilcalho B. Volatile compounds of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.). Z. Naturforsch. 2001;56(12):35-39.

Franca F, Cuba CA, Moreira EA, Miguel O, Almeida M, das Virgens ML, Marsden PD. An evaluation of the Effectof a bark extracts from the cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) on infection by Leishmania (Viannnia) brasiliensis. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 1993;26:151-155.

Hammed LA, Anikwe JC. Cashew Nuts and Production Development in Am-Euras. J Sci Res. 2008;3:54-61.

Mahanwar PA, Kale DD. Effect of Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) on properties of phenolic resins. J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 1996;61:2107-2111.

Shahidi F, McDonald J, Chandrasekara, A, Zhong Y. Phytochemicals of foods, beverages and fruit vinegars: chemistry and health effects. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr. 2008;17:380-382.

De-Fatima A, Modolo LV, Conegero LS, Pilli RA, Ferreira CV, Kohn LK, et al. Lactones and their derivatives: Biological activities, mechanisms of action and potential leads for drug design. Curr. Med. Chem. 2006;13:3371-3384

Sofowora EA. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa 2nd edition spectrum book Ltd. Ibadan; 1993.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis of the association of official‟s analytical chemists, 17th edition., Arlington, Virginia; 2003.

Achal DB. Cashew: Nutrition and medical Colarado State University. 2002;159-165.

Arkroyed WR, Doughty J. Legumes in human nutrition food and Agricultural Organization nutrition studies publication .19; 1994.

Arogba SS. Studies on kolanut and cashew kernels moisture absorption isotherm: Proximate composition and functional properties, Food Chemistry. 1999;67:223-228.

Aremu MO, Olaofe O, Akintayo TE. A comparative study on the chemical and a composition of some Nigerian underutilized legumes flours. . 2006;34-38.

Pomeranz, Clifton D. Food analysis theory and practices. 1991;17.

Pearson DA. Chemical analysis of foods 7th edition. 1996;422-511.

Balogun IO, Olatidoye OP. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of Velvet bean seeds (Mucuma utilisis) for domestic consumption and industrial utilization in Nigeria. Pak. J. Nutr. 2012;11: 116-122.

Egharevba HO, Kunle FO. Preliminary phytochemical and proximate analysis of the leaves of Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach) milneredhead. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2010;14:570-577.

Adinortey MB, Sarfo JK, Quayson ET, Weremfo A, Adinortey CA, Ekloh W, Ocran J. Phytochemical screening, proximate and mineral composition of Launaea taraxacifolia leaves. Res. J. Med. Plant, 2012;6:171-9.

Yisa J, Egila JN, Darlinton AO. Chemical composition of Annona senegalensis from Nupe land, Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotech. 2010;9: 4106-4109.