Main Article Content
The study was designed to determine the nutrient, bioactive components and the effects of ethanol extracts of the leaves of Annona muricata (AM) and the roots of Fagara zanthoxyloide (FZ) on zidovudine-induced oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups of five rats each. Groups 2-4 were induced with 100 g/ml/Kg bw of zidovudine (ZDV) and varying concentrations of the extracts (group 3 and 4); while group 1 served as the control. The results of the proximate composition of both plants showed the following ranges: moisture (10.32-18.30%), ash (0.65-9.45%), crude protein (1.38-10.54%), crude fat (2.35-9.73%), crude fibre (3.00-15.53%) and carbohydrate (50.19-65.23%). Iron was the highest mineral present in all the samples followed by zinc and calcium for FZ and AM respectively; while folate and ascorbic acid were the highest vitamins present in both samples. Phytochemical composition results revealed higher concentrations of alkaloids, flavonoid and phenols in the leaves and roots of both samples. Acute toxicity study revealed no short term toxicity below 6 g/ml/Kg bw for the leave extract of Annona muricata and 4 g/ml/Kg bw for the root extract of Fagara zanthoxyloide. Administration of zidovudine to albino rats resulted in a significant increase (p≤0.05) in biomarkers of oxidative stress; while subsequent treatment with ethanol extracts of the leaves of AM and roots of FZ reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. The splenic histology revealed atrophy, early onset necrosis and reduction in sinusoidal pore size in the negative control group which were absent in the extract treatment groups indicating a protective effect conferred by extracts against oxidative stress. The study, therefore suggests that these plants may play some key roles in alleviating salient nutritional, physiological and oxidative stress related challenges.
Mishra S, Ahmad S, Kumar N, Sharma B. Annona muricata (the cancer killer): A review. Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013;2:1613–1618.
Moghadamtousi SZ, Fadaeinasab M, Nikzad S, Mohan G, Ali HM, Kadir HA. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A review of its traditional uses, isolated acetogenins and biological activities. International Journal of Molecular Science. 2015;16:15625–15658.
Abdul-Wahab SM, Jantan I, Haque MA, Arshad L. Exploring the leaves of Annona muricata l. As a source of potential anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2018;9:661.
Adewole S, Ojewole J. Protective effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaf aqueous extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2009;6:30–41.
Adefisoye MA, AjibadeAko-Nai K, Bisi-Johnson MA. Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology. 2012;1(1):1-6.
De la Asunción JG, Del Olmo ML, Gómez-Cambronero LG, Sastre J, et al. AZT induces oxidative damage to cardiac mitochondria: Protective effect of vitamins C and E. Life Sciences. 2004;76(1):47-56.
Ogbuehi HI, Omotayo O, Obianime E, Obianime AW. Oral acute toxicity (LD50) study of different solvent extracts of Abrus precatorius Linn leaves in wistar rats. European Journal of Experimental Biology. 2015;5(1):18-25.
NIH. National Research Council Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. Publication no. 85-123 (rev.) National Institute Health, Bethesda, M.D.; 1985.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 18th Ed., Revision 3, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC; 2010.
Achi NK, Onyeabo C, Ekeleme-Egedigwe CA, Onyeanula JC. Phytochemical, proximate analysis, vitamin and mineral composition of aqueous extract of Ficus capensis leaves in South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2017;7(03):117-122.
Okwu DE, Josiah C. Evaluation of the chemical composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;4:357-361.
Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. 3rd Ed. Spectrum Books, Ibadan; 2008.
Ogunka-Nnoka CU, Ohwokevwo OA, Onyeike EN. Nutraceutical potentials of Splilanthes filicualis. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research. 2019;19(1):22-28.
Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutases. An adaptation to a paramagnetic gas. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1989;264(14):7761-7764.
Aebi U, Fowler WE, Rew P, Sun TT. The fibrillar substructure of keratin filaments unraveled. The Journal of Cell Biology. 1983;97(4):1131-1143.
De Las Heras D, Fernández J, Ginès P, Cárdenas A, Ortega R, Navasa M, Jiménez W. Increased carbon monoxide production in patients with cirrhosis with and without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology. 2003;38(2):452-459.
Al-Hasawi ZM, Al-Harbi HAA. Effect of Rhazya stricta dense leaf extract on the liver and kidney tissue structure of albino mice. Global Advanced Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology. 2014;3(4):057-064.
Shemishere UB, Taiwo JE, Erhunse N, Omoregie ES. Comparative study on the proximate analysis and nutritional composition of Musanga cercropioides and Maesobotyra barteri leaves. Journal of Applied and Science and Environmental Management. 2018;22(2):287–291.
Gora D, Sandhya M, Shiv G, Praveen S. Oxidative stress, α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione status in Schzophrnics. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 2006;21:34-38.
Thomas RA, Krishnakumari S. Proximate analysis and mineral composition of Myristica fragrans seeds. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2015;3(6):39-42.
Llauradó M, Abal M, Castellví J, Cabrera S, Gil-Moreno A, et al. ETV5 transcription factor is overexpressed in ovarian cancer and regulates cell adhesion in ovarian cancer cells. International Journal of Cancer. 2012;130:1532–1543.
Oboh G, Akindahunsi AA. Change in the ascorbic acid, total phenol and antioxidant activity of sun-dried commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in Nigeria. Nutritional Health. 2004;18:29-36.
Dubost N, Ou B, Beelman R. Quantification of polyphenols and ergothioneine in cultivated mushrooms and correlation to total antioxidant capacity. Food Chemistry. 2007;105(2): 727-735.
Bertin AG, Euloge SA, Angelus K, Edwige D, Alphonse S, Sohounhloue D. Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract from leaves of Annona muricata (L.) from Benin in experimental albino rats. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 2017;5(6):39-41.
Ogwal-Okeng JW, Obua C, Anokbonggo WW. Acute toxicity effects of the methanolic extract of Fagara zanthoxyloides (Lam.) root-bark. African Health Sciences. 2003;3(3):124–126.
Chapman J, Azevedo AM. Splenomegaly. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island, Florida; 2018.
Belonwu DC, Onyieke EN, Ekere OU. Comparative phytochemistry of peddled Yoruba medicinal formulations. Indian Journal of Drugs and Diseases. 2013;2(3):259-270.
Belonwu DC, Onyieke EN, Ekere OU. Phytochemical analysis of the Yoruba medicinal formulations- "Gbogbo Nise" and its effect on some liver enzymes. Indian Journal of Drugs and Diseases. 2013;2(5):288-293.